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Quantum Rep., Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2020) – 11 articles

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Article
Quantum Information Hidden in Quantum Fields
Quantum Rep. 2020, 2(3), 459-488; https://doi.org/10.3390/quantum2030033 - 15 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1129
Abstract
We investigate a possible reduction mechanism from (bosonic) Quantum Field Theory (QFT) to Quantum Mechanics (QM), in a manner that could explain the apparent loss of degrees of freedom of the original theory in terms of quantum information in the reduced one. This [...] Read more.
We investigate a possible reduction mechanism from (bosonic) Quantum Field Theory (QFT) to Quantum Mechanics (QM), in a manner that could explain the apparent loss of degrees of freedom of the original theory in terms of quantum information in the reduced one. This reduction mechanism consists mainly of performing an ansatz on the boson field operator, which takes into account quantum foam and non-commutative geometry. Through the reduction mechanism, QFT reveals its hidden internal structure, which is a quantum network of maximally entangled multipartite states. In the end, a new approach to the quantum simulation of QFT is proposed through the use of QFT’s internal quantum network. Finally, the entropic equilibrium of fully mixed and maximally entangled states in the quantum network seems to suggest that the black hole paradox of information loss might be solved under suitable conditions. Full article
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Brief Report
Demonstration of Software Defined Network Services Utilizing Quantum Key Distribution Fully Integrated with Standard Telecommunication Network
Quantum Rep. 2020, 2(3), 453-458; https://doi.org/10.3390/quantum2030032 - 03 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1299
Abstract
We present a demonstration of software defined networking (SDN) services utilizing quantum key distribution (QKD) technology, fully integrated with standard telecommunication network connecting production facilities of Telefonica in Madrid. All communications “co-propagate” over the same fiber infrastructure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Technologies for Future Internet)
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Editorial
Editorial for the Special Issue “Selected Papers from the 16th International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations (ICSSUR 2019)”
Quantum Rep. 2020, 2(3), 450-452; https://doi.org/10.3390/quantum2030031 - 02 Sep 2020
Viewed by 841
Abstract
The first quantum revolution started in the early 20th century and gave us new rules that govern physical reality [...] Full article
Article
How to Avoid Absolute Determinismin Two Boundary Quantum Dynamics
Quantum Rep. 2020, 2(3), 442-449; https://doi.org/10.3390/quantum2030030 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 891
Abstract
Arguments for a two boundary theory are briefly outlined. Plausible concepts of how in such a theory an approximate causal macroscopic theory can emerge are presented. A problem with simple implementations of the two boundary theory is that effective or real willful decisions [...] Read more.
Arguments for a two boundary theory are briefly outlined. Plausible concepts of how in such a theory an approximate causal macroscopic theory can emerge are presented. A problem with simple implementations of the two boundary theory is that effective or real willful decisions can not be added as there is no consecutive macroscopic time ordering. In this letter, we present a somewhat drastic but beautiful way to avoid it. Full article
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Article
“Time”-Covariant Schrödinger Equation and the Canonical Quantization of the Reissner–Nordström Black Hole
Quantum Rep. 2020, 2(3), 414-441; https://doi.org/10.3390/quantum2030029 - 07 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1022
Abstract
A “time”-covariant Schrödinger equation is defined for the minisuperspace model of the Reissner–Nordström (RN) black hole, as a “hybrid” between the “intrinsic time” Schrödinger and Wheeler–DeWitt (WDW) equations. To do so, a reduced, regular, and “time(r)”-dependent Hamiltonian density was constructed, without “breaking” the [...] Read more.
A “time”-covariant Schrödinger equation is defined for the minisuperspace model of the Reissner–Nordström (RN) black hole, as a “hybrid” between the “intrinsic time” Schrödinger and Wheeler–DeWitt (WDW) equations. To do so, a reduced, regular, and “time(r)”-dependent Hamiltonian density was constructed, without “breaking” the re-parametrization covariance rf(r˜). As a result, the evolution of states with respect to the parameter r and the probabilistic interpretation of the resulting quantum description is possible, while quantum schemes for different gauge choices are equivalent by construction. The solutions are found for Dirac’s delta and Gaussian initial states. A geometrical interpretation of the wavefunctions is presented via Bohm analysis. Alongside this, a criterion is presented to adjudicate which, between two singular spacetimes, is “more” or “less” singular. Two ways to adjudicate the existence of singularities are compared (vanishing of the probability density at the classical singularity and semi-classical spacetime singularity). Finally, an equivalence of the reduced equations with those of a 3D electromagnetic pp-wave spacetime is revealed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exclusive Feature Papers of Quantum Reports)
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Article
Bounds on Probability of Detection Error in Quantum-Enhanced Noise Radar
Quantum Rep. 2020, 2(3), 400-413; https://doi.org/10.3390/quantum2030028 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1203
Abstract
Several methods for exploiting quantum effects in radar have been proposed, and some have been shown theoretically to outperform any classical radar scheme. Here, a model is presented of quantum-enhanced noise radar enabling a similar analysis. This quantum radar scheme has a potential [...] Read more.
Several methods for exploiting quantum effects in radar have been proposed, and some have been shown theoretically to outperform any classical radar scheme. Here, a model is presented of quantum-enhanced noise radar enabling a similar analysis. This quantum radar scheme has a potential advantage in terms of ease of implementation insofar as it requires no quantum memory. A significant feature of the model introduced is the inclusion of quantum noise consistent with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle applied to simultaneous determination of field quadratures. The model enables direct comparison to other quantum and classical radar schemes. A bound on the probability of an error in target detection is shown to match that of the optimal classical-state scheme. The detection error is found to be typically higher than for ideal quantum illumination, but orders of magnitude lower than for the most similar classical noise radar scheme. Full article
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Article
Magnetic Monopoles and Superinsulation in Josephson Junction Arrays
Quantum Rep. 2020, 2(3), 388-399; https://doi.org/10.3390/quantum2030027 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1035
Abstract
Electric-magnetic duality or S-duality, extending the symmetry of Maxwell’s equations by including the symmetry between Noether electric charges and topological magnetic monopoles, is one of the most fundamental concepts of modern physics. In two-dimensional systems harboring Cooper pairs, S-duality manifests in the emergence [...] Read more.
Electric-magnetic duality or S-duality, extending the symmetry of Maxwell’s equations by including the symmetry between Noether electric charges and topological magnetic monopoles, is one of the most fundamental concepts of modern physics. In two-dimensional systems harboring Cooper pairs, S-duality manifests in the emergence of superinsulation, a state dual to superconductivity, which exhibits an infinite resistance at finite temperatures. The mechanism behind this infinite resistance is the linear charge confinement by a magnetic monopole plasma. This plasma constricts electric field lines connecting the charge–anti-charge pairs into electric strings, in analogy to quarks within hadrons. However, the origin of the monopole plasma remains an open question. Here, we consider a two-dimensional Josephson junction array (JJA) and reveal that the magnetic monopole plasma arises as quantum instantons, thus establishing the underlying mechanism of superinsulation as two-dimensional quantum tunneling events. We calculate the string tension and the dimension of an electric pion determining the minimal size of a system capable of hosting superinsulation. Our findings pave the way for study of fundamental S-duality in desktop experiments on JJA and superconducting films. Full article
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Technical Note
Design and Construction of Magnetic Coils for Quantum Magnetism Experiments
Quantum Rep. 2020, 2(3), 378-387; https://doi.org/10.3390/quantum2030026 - 17 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1417
Abstract
We report on the design and construction of a spin-flip Zeeman slower, a quadrupole magnetic trap and a Feshbach field for a new machine for ultra-cold Li-7. The small mass of the Li-7 atom, and the tight lattice spacing, will enable to achieve [...] Read more.
We report on the design and construction of a spin-flip Zeeman slower, a quadrupole magnetic trap and a Feshbach field for a new machine for ultra-cold Li-7. The small mass of the Li-7 atom, and the tight lattice spacing, will enable to achieve a 100-fold increase in tunneling rates over comparable Rb-87 optical lattice emulator experiments. These improvements should enable to access new regimes in quantum magnetic phase transitions and spin dynamics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spin Hall Effect in Photonic Materials)
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Article
Graph Approach to Quantum Teleportation Dynamics
Quantum Rep. 2020, 2(3), 352-377; https://doi.org/10.3390/quantum2030025 - 10 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1086
Abstract
Quantum teleportation plays a key role in modern quantum technologies. Thus, it is of much interest to generate alternative approaches or representations that are aimed at allowing us a better understanding of the physics involved in the process from different perspectives. With this [...] Read more.
Quantum teleportation plays a key role in modern quantum technologies. Thus, it is of much interest to generate alternative approaches or representations that are aimed at allowing us a better understanding of the physics involved in the process from different perspectives. With this purpose, here an approach based on graph theory is introduced and discussed in the context of some applications. Its main goal is to provide a fully symbolic framework for quantum teleportation from a dynamical viewpoint, which makes explicit at each stage of the process how entanglement and information swap among the qubits involved in it. In order to construct this dynamical perspective, it has been necessary to define some auxiliary elements, namely virtual nodes and edges, as well as an additional notation for nodes describing potential states (against nodes accounting for actual states). With these elements, not only the flow of the process can be followed step by step, but they also allow us to establish a direct correspondence between this graph-based approach and the usual state vector description. To show the suitability and versatility of this graph-based approach, several particular teleportation examples are examined in detail, which include bipartite, tripartite, and tetrapartite maximally entangled states as quantum channels. From the analysis of these cases, a general protocol is devised to describe the sharing of quantum information in presence of maximally entangled multi-qubit system. Full article
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Article
Generation of Entanglement between Two Two-Level Atoms Coupled to a Microtoroidal Cavity Via Thermal Field
Quantum Rep. 2020, 2(3), 343-351; https://doi.org/10.3390/quantum2030024 - 08 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 924
Abstract
We investigate the entanglement dynamics of a system comprising a pair of two-level dipole-dipole interacting atoms coupled to a microtoroidal resonator. Each atom is individually coupled with the two counter-propagating whispering gallery modes of the resonator through their evanescent fields. The atom-atom entanglement [...] Read more.
We investigate the entanglement dynamics of a system comprising a pair of two-level dipole-dipole interacting atoms coupled to a microtoroidal resonator. Each atom is individually coupled with the two counter-propagating whispering gallery modes of the resonator through their evanescent fields. The atom-atom entanglement shown for several parameter sets of the system was obtained using the negativity. For ideal resonators, it is seen that the entanglement is correlated to the dipole-dipole interaction and the average number of photons when the modes of the resonator are prepared in a thermal state even at high temperatures. Further, for the non-ideal resonator case, where there is a small structural deformation of the microtoroidal structure that allows a direct coupling between the modes, a counter-intuitive result is presented. The imperfections also offer the advantage of generating maximally entangled states for a two-atom subsystem with maximum fidelity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exclusive Feature Papers of Quantum Reports)
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Article
Undecidable, Unrecognizable, and Quantum Computing
Quantum Rep. 2020, 2(3), 337-342; https://doi.org/10.3390/quantum2030023 - 01 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1109
Abstract
Quantum computing allows us to solve some problems much faster than existing classical algorithms. Yet, the quantum computer has been believed to be no more powerful than the most general computing model—the Turing machine. Undecidable problems, such as the halting problem, and unrecognizable [...] Read more.
Quantum computing allows us to solve some problems much faster than existing classical algorithms. Yet, the quantum computer has been believed to be no more powerful than the most general computing model—the Turing machine. Undecidable problems, such as the halting problem, and unrecognizable inputs, such as the real numbers, are beyond the theoretical limit of the Turing machine. I suggest a model for a quantum computer, which is less general than the Turing machine, but may solve the halting problem for any task programmable on it. Moreover, inputs unrecognizable by the Turing machine can be recognized by the model, thus breaking the theoretical limit for a computational task. A quantum computer is not just a successful design of the Turing machine as it is widely perceived now, but is a different, less general but more powerful model for computing, the practical realization of which may need different strategies than those in use now. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exclusive Feature Papers of Quantum Reports)
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