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Volume 1, September

Table of Contents

Dairy, Volume 1, Issue 1 (June 2020) – 6 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Though most of the sheep herds in the Mediterranean basin are still under traditional grazing on [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview
Bacterial Endotoxins and Their Role in Periparturient Diseases of Dairy Cows: Mucosal Vaccine Perspectives
Dairy 2020, 1(1), 61-90; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy1010006 - 20 May 2020
Viewed by 514
Abstract
During the periparturient period there is a significant increase in the incidence of multiple metabolic and infectious diseases in dairy cows. Dairy cows are fed high-grain diets immediately after calving to support production of large amounts of milk. Mounting evidence indicates these types [...] Read more.
During the periparturient period there is a significant increase in the incidence of multiple metabolic and infectious diseases in dairy cows. Dairy cows are fed high-grain diets immediately after calving to support production of large amounts of milk. Mounting evidence indicates these types of diets are associated with the release of high amounts of endotoxins in the rumen fluid. If infected, the udder and uterus additionally become important sources of endotoxins during the postpartum period. There is increasing evidence that endotoxins translocate from rumen, uterus, or udder into the systemic circulation and trigger chronic low-grade inflammatory conditions associated with multiple diseases including fatty liver, mastitis, retained placenta, metritis, laminitis, displaced abomasum, milk fever, and downer cow syndrome. Interestingly, endotoxin-related diseases are triggered by a bacterial component and not by a specific bacterium. This makes prevention of these type of diseases different from classical infectious diseases. Prevention of translocation of endotoxins into the host systemic circulation needs to take priority and this could be achieved with a new approach: mucosal vaccination. In this review article, we discuss all the aforementioned issues in detail and also report some of our trials with regards to mucosal vaccination of periparturient dairy cows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Physiology)
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Open AccessReview
Ketosis an Old Story Under a New Approach
Dairy 2020, 1(1), 42-60; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy1010005 - 10 May 2020
Viewed by 702
Abstract
Ketosis, characterized by high concentrations of ketone bodies in the blood, urine, and milk, affects a considerable number of cows immediately after calving. Although much is known about ketosis, dairy cows continue to be affected in every herd world-wide. Cows affected by ketosis [...] Read more.
Ketosis, characterized by high concentrations of ketone bodies in the blood, urine, and milk, affects a considerable number of cows immediately after calving. Although much is known about ketosis, dairy cows continue to be affected in every herd world-wide. Cows affected by ketosis are treated with palliative treatments after the disease is diagnosed. This is a very expensive approach and costs the dairy industry extra expenses, contributing to lower profitability of dairy herds. In this review article, we summarize the mainstream view on ketosis, classification of ketosis into three types, current diagnostic approaches to ketosis, and the economic impact of ketosis on dairy farms. Additionally, we discuss the most recent applications of the new ‘omics’ science of metabolomics in studying the etiopathology of ketosis as well as its contribution in identification of novel screening or diagnostic biomarkers of ketosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolomics and Foodomics)
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Open AccessArticle
An Untargeted Metabolomic Comparison of Milk Composition from Sheep Kept Under Different Grazing Systems
Dairy 2020, 1(1), 30-41; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy1010004 - 05 Apr 2020
Viewed by 665
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different feedings on main traits and polar and semi-polar metabolite profiles of ovine milk. The milk metabolome of two groups of Sarda sheep kept under different grazing systems were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different feedings on main traits and polar and semi-polar metabolite profiles of ovine milk. The milk metabolome of two groups of Sarda sheep kept under different grazing systems were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and multivariate statistical analysis (MVA). The results of discriminant analysis indicated that the two groups showed a different metabolite profile, i.e., milk samples of sheep kept under Grazing System 1 (GS1) were richer in nucleosides, inositols, hippuric acid, and organic acids, while milk of sheep under Grazing System 2 (GS2) showed higher levels of phosphate. Statistical analysis of milk main traits indicates that fat content was significantly higher in GS1 samples while milk from GS2 sheep had more urea, trans-vaccenic acid, and rumenic acid. MVA studies of the associations between milk main traits and metabolite profile indicated that the latter reflects primarily the long chain fatty acid content, the somatic cell count (SCC), and lactose levels. All together, these results demonstrated that an integrated holistic approach could be applied to deepen knowledge about the effects of feeding on sheep’s milk composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation Meets Tradition in the Sheep and Goat Dairy Industry)
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Open AccessReview
Dairy Cow Health and Greenhouse Gas Emission Intensity
Dairy 2020, 1(1), 20-29; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy1010003 - 23 Mar 2020
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Abstract
The purpose of this review is to identify the main influencing factors related to dairy cow health as it impacts the intensity of greenhouse gas emissions considering known data presented in the literature. For this study, we define the emission intensity as CO2 [...] Read more.
The purpose of this review is to identify the main influencing factors related to dairy cow health as it impacts the intensity of greenhouse gas emissions considering known data presented in the literature. For this study, we define the emission intensity as CO2 equivalents per kilogram of milk. In dairy cows, a high dry matter (DM) intake (25 kg/d) leads to an higher absolute methane emission compared to a lower DM intake (10 kg/d). However, the emission intensity is decreased at a high performance level. The emissions caused by DM intake to cover the energy requirement for maintenance are distributed over a higher milk yield. Therefore, the emission intensity per kilogram of product is decreased for high-yielding animals with a high DM intake. Apart from that, animal diseases as well as poor environmental or nutritional conditions are responsible for a decreased DM intake and a compromised performance. As a result, animal diseases not only mean reduced productivity, but also increased emission intensity. The productive life-span of a dairy cow is closely related to animal health, and the impact on emission intensity is enormous. A model calculation shows that cows with five to eight lactations could have a reduced emission intensity of up to 40% compared to animals that have left the herd after their first lactation. This supports the general efforts to increase longevity of dairy cows by an improved health management including all measures to prevent diseases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Urinary Metabolomics around Parturition Identifies Metabolite Alterations in Dairy Cows Affected Postpartum by Lameness: Preliminary Study
Dairy 2020, 1(1), 6-19; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy1010002 - 13 Mar 2020
Viewed by 671
Abstract
(1) Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the urine of dairy cows for presence of metabolites with the potential to be used as screening biomarkers for lameness as well as to characterize pre-lame, lame, and post-lame cows from the metabolic [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the urine of dairy cows for presence of metabolites with the potential to be used as screening biomarkers for lameness as well as to characterize pre-lame, lame, and post-lame cows from the metabolic prospective. (2) Methods: Six lame and 20 control healthy cows were used in this nested case-control study. Urinary 1H-NMR analysis was used to identify and measure metabolites at five time points including −8 and −4 weeks prepartum, lameness diagnosis week (1–3 weeks postpartum) as well as at +4 and +8 weeks after calving. (3) Results: A total of 90 metabolites were identified and measured in the urine. At −8 and −4 weeks, 27 prepartum metabolites were identified as altered, at both timepoints, with 19 and 5 metabolites excreted at a lower concentration, respectively. Additionally, a total of 8 and 22 metabolites were found at greater concentration in pre-lame cows at −8 and −4 weeks, respectively. Lame cows were identified to excrete, at lower concentrations, seven metabolites during a lameness event with the top five most important metabolites being Tyr, adipate, glycerate, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarate, and uracil. Alterations in urinary metabolites also were present at +4 and +8 weeks after calving with N-acetylaspartate, glutamine, imidazole, pantothenate, beta-alanine and trimethylamine, with the greatest VIP (variable importance in projection) score at +4 weeks; and hipurate, pantothenate 1,3-dihydroxyacetone, galactose, and Tyr, with the greatest VIP score at +8 weeks postpartum. (4) Conclusions: Overall, results showed that urine metabotyping can be used to identify cows at risk of lameness and to better characterize lameness from the metabolic prospective. However, caution should be taken in interpretation of the data presented because of the low number of replicates. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Introducing Dairy: A Transdisciplinary Journal to Advance Understanding of Dairy Nutrition, Health and Productivity, Welfare and Well-Being as Well as Milk Synthesis-Composition and Health Effects of Its Products
Dairy 2020, 1(1), 1-5; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy1010001 - 09 Jul 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1313
Abstract
Milk is an excellent food source for both young animals and humans.[...] Full article
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