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Ultrasound-Enhanced Hot Air Drying of Germinated Highland Barley Seeds: Drying Characteristics, Microstructure, and Bioactive Profile

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College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
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College of Food Science, Tibet Agriculture & Animal Husbandry University, Nyingchi 860000, China
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Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia, Jalan Broga, Semenyih 43500, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
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College of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
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Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Centre of Innovative Nanostructures & Nanodevices (COINN), Institute of Autonomous System, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar 32610, Malaysia
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
AgriEngineering 2019, 1(4), 496-510; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriengineering1040036
Received: 24 September 2019 / Revised: 7 October 2019 / Accepted: 8 October 2019 / Published: 14 October 2019
The effects of ultrasound-enhanced hot air drying on the drying characteristics, microstructure and bioactive profile of germinated highland barley seeds (GHB) were studied. GHB was dried by hot air at 55 °C and 70 °C and ultrasonic intensities of 125.1 W/dm2 and 180.2 W/dm2, respectively. The results showed that when the drying temperature was 55 °C or 70 °C, the sonicated groups could shorten the drying time by 17.4–26.1% or 18.8–31.3%, respectively. Ultrasound drying at 125.1 W/dm2 and 55 °C could mostly increase the content of organic selenium and the rehydration rate, improve the color and maintain the original structure of GHB. Compared with hot air drying alone, the phenolic content did not increase due to ultrasound-enhanced hot air drying. Therefore, drying at an ultrasonic intensity of 125.1 W/dm2 and a temperature of 55 °C could effectively shorten the drying time, and enhance the quality of GHB. View Full-Text
Keywords: ultrasound-enhanced hot air drying; germinated highland barley seeds; drying characteristics; microstructure; bioactive profile ultrasound-enhanced hot air drying; germinated highland barley seeds; drying characteristics; microstructure; bioactive profile
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Song, Y.; Tao, Y.; Zhu, X.; Han, Y.; Show, P.L.; Song, C.; Zaid, H.F.M. Ultrasound-Enhanced Hot Air Drying of Germinated Highland Barley Seeds: Drying Characteristics, Microstructure, and Bioactive Profile. AgriEngineering 2019, 1, 496-510.

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