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Smart Cities, Volume 1, Issue 1 (December 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Perceived Importance of Smart and Sustainable Building Features from the Users’ Perspective
Smart Cities 2018, 1(1), 163-175; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities1010010
Received: 13 November 2018 / Revised: 22 November 2018 / Accepted: 25 November 2018 / Published: 30 November 2018
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Abstract
Smart and sustainable buildings have been designed, built and utilized in order to consume less energy, facilitate efficient building operation, and improve the comfort, health and productivity of users. Hence, they become a critical component of smart cities. Nonetheless, perceived importance rankings of
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Smart and sustainable buildings have been designed, built and utilized in order to consume less energy, facilitate efficient building operation, and improve the comfort, health and productivity of users. Hence, they become a critical component of smart cities. Nonetheless, perceived importance rankings of different features of smart and sustainable buildings have yet to be identified and prioritized from the users’ perspective. Based on responses from 494 building users in Hong Kong, it was found that building users tended to focus more on intelligent security systems, followed by intelligent and responsive fresh air supply and lifts and escalators. On the other hand, building users generally considered the systems that monitor people’s movement and harvest rain water to be the least important features. Exploratory factor analyses were used to identify key factors of perceived smartness and sustainability of a building. The results of factor analyses showed that different user groups would characterize a building’s smartness differently. Full article
Open AccessConcept Paper Building Engaged Communities—A Collaborative Leadership Approach
Smart Cities 2018, 1(1), 155-162; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities1010009
Received: 19 October 2018 / Revised: 9 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
Community engagement is essential for building smart cities. While leaders who participate in community leadership development programs create engaged communities, there is a gap in literature on the role leadership programs play in the formation of engaged communities. This conceptual paper examines the
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Community engagement is essential for building smart cities. While leaders who participate in community leadership development programs create engaged communities, there is a gap in literature on the role leadership programs play in the formation of engaged communities. This conceptual paper examines the relationship between collaborative leadership and leadership development programs in order and their role in fostering engaged communities. Recommendations for future research on building effective leadership programs are proposed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Digital Systems in Smart City and Infrastructure: Digital as a Service
Smart Cities 2018, 1(1), 134-154; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities1010008
Received: 21 October 2018 / Revised: 29 October 2018 / Accepted: 5 November 2018 / Published: 6 November 2018
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Abstract
Digitalization has enabled infrastructure and cities to be “smarter”; the use of physical space and energy, the transmission of information, the management of users, assets and processes, the operation of businesses and companies have been progressively digitalized. The main challenges of a Smart
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Digitalization has enabled infrastructure and cities to be “smarter”; the use of physical space and energy, the transmission of information, the management of users, assets and processes, the operation of businesses and companies have been progressively digitalized. The main challenges of a Smart City is its definition, scope and interconnections; there are different approaches to Smart City implementations that vary from collaborative multidisciplinary environments, the addition of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) within its physical fabric to the use of Big Data for higher abstraction decisions. This paper presents the concept of Digital as a Service (DaaS), where any complete digitalization can be implemented independently of its associated physical infrastructure in a Cloud environment; DasS would enable an interoperable Virtual Digital Infrastructure (VDI). In addition, this paper reviews the current Digital Systems, Transmission Networks, Servers and Management Systems. The next Industrial Revolution will be founded on Artificial Intelligence that will entirely replace humans by taking production and management decisions based on the Internet of Things (IoT), the Cloud, BlockChain, Big Data, Virtual Reality and the combination of digital and real infrastructure or city. Digital as a Service would be its enabler by providing the entire interconnection, integration and virtualization of its Space, Services and Structure (3S). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Cities and Internet of Things (IoT))
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Open AccessArticle Towards Smart Urban Regeneration: Findings of an Urban Footprint Survey in Port Louis, Mauritius
Smart Cities 2018, 1(1), 121-133; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities1010007
Received: 24 September 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 23 October 2018
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Abstract
The Smart City Scheme, as part of the Smart Mauritius initiative, adopted by the Government of Mauritius in 2014, heavily incentivised the emergence of new smart cities in greenfields. The resulting migration of business and residents from existing cities to new cities affected
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The Smart City Scheme, as part of the Smart Mauritius initiative, adopted by the Government of Mauritius in 2014, heavily incentivised the emergence of new smart cities in greenfields. The resulting migration of business and residents from existing cities to new cities affected the liveability standard of existing cities and encouraged property speculation. This shift reduced home pricing affordability further from the grasp of young professionals. With the Mauritian Landlord and Tenant Act of 1999 discouraging investment in Mauritian city centres, property developers were additionally encouraged to invest in housing projects in these emerging Smart Cities. As part of the Smart Urban Regeneration strategy of Port Louis that sought to reduce competition between new and existing cities, the provision of housing was seen as paramount to enabling the Smart Cities concept as promoted by the Government. The findings of this paper, which explores the urban footprint of Port Louis through field survey, provides insights, as to the components of the city, that can assist policy-makers and developers to better shape projects that are more responsive to the Smart Urban Regeneration plan. Full article
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Open AccessReview Ethics and Law in the Internet of Things World
Smart Cities 2018, 1(1), 98-120; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities1010006
Received: 4 September 2018 / Revised: 30 September 2018 / Accepted: 3 October 2018 / Published: 12 October 2018
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Abstract
The aim of the law is to maintain social order, peace, and justice in society, whereas the aim of ethics is to provide codes of ethics and conduct that help people to decide what is wrong, and how to act and behave. Laws
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The aim of the law is to maintain social order, peace, and justice in society, whereas the aim of ethics is to provide codes of ethics and conduct that help people to decide what is wrong, and how to act and behave. Laws provide a minimum set of standards for obtaining good human behavior. Ethics often provides standards that exceed the legal minimum. Therefore, for the best behavior, both law and ethics should be respected. The Internet of Things (IoT) involves a large number of objects and humans that are connected via the Internet ‘anytime’ and ‘anyplace’ to provide homogeneous communication and contextual services. Thus, it creates a new social, economic, political, and ethical landscape that needs new enhanced legal and ethical measures for privacy protection, data security, ownership protection, trust improvement, and the development of proper standards. This survey and opinion article is concerned with the ethics and legislation of the IoT and provides an overview of the following: definition and history of the IoT; general ethical principles and theories that are available for application in the IoT; the role of governments in the IoT; regulations in the European Union (EU) and United States for the IoT’ IoT characteristics that have the potential to create ethical problems; IoT ethical questions and principles; IoT security, privacy, and trust aspects; and the ethical culture of IoT-related companies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Cities and Internet of Things (IoT))
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Open AccessArticle Characteristics of Smart Sustainable City Development: Implications for Project Management
Smart Cities 2018, 1(1), 75-97; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities1010005
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 15 September 2018 / Published: 26 September 2018
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Abstract
Projects and project management (PM) are becoming a way of working, and many changes in society have evolved because of projects. However, will the societal agenda also influence the project management discipline? Societal issues generated by urban population growth and rapid urbanization arise
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Projects and project management (PM) are becoming a way of working, and many changes in society have evolved because of projects. However, will the societal agenda also influence the project management discipline? Societal issues generated by urban population growth and rapid urbanization arise in cities. Making a city “smart” and sustainable is emerging as a strategy to mitigate these issues. How does this development impact project management? In order to answer this question, we performed meaningful learning by mapping the concepts for Smart Sustainable Cities (SSC) and project management and developing prior and post concept maps. We identified four major findings describing the implication of societal issues on project management: quality of life acts as a societal objective for PM; PM governs autonomous projects with new business models; and PM success criteria are related to stakeholders and long-term effects, as well as extensive connection to the digital world with consideration of the privacy and ethics. From this, we were able to redefine the definition of project management as “a collaborative endeavor of all affected stakeholders equivalently participating in exploring and exploiting, via an autonomous temporary organization, fit-for-purpose deliverables with connections to the digital platform, thereby aiming to prepare the entities of the affected stakeholders for the future”. Our study is novel and relevant for PM and SSC practice: societal issues are on the strategy agenda of many governments and companies, and these will drive the projects that are performed in this environment. The project management community should align with this development, since these challenges are part of their environment. As a start, a comprehensive understanding of the impact of societal issues is relevant to build new definitions, competences, and supporting processes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Economically Incentivising Smart Urban Regeneration. Case Study of Port Louis, Mauritius
Smart Cities 2018, 1(1), 53-74; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities1010004
Received: 25 July 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 4 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
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Abstract
Port Louis, the capital city of Mauritius, has been the preferred city for hosting the judicial, political and business activities of the country for the past two centuries. However, new policies have created nine new smart cities in greenfield locations within 10 km
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Port Louis, the capital city of Mauritius, has been the preferred city for hosting the judicial, political and business activities of the country for the past two centuries. However, new policies have created nine new smart cities in greenfield locations within 10 km from Port Louis, so the capital city is facing economic decline as it is losing businesses, as well as administrative functions. This loss equates to an erosion in municipal revenue along with a reduced interest in contributing to the development of the city; all of which takes a toll on its urban economic landscape, as well as on the broader Mauritian economy. This paper builds from the findings of a focus group study to propose a smart urban regeneration model for the City of Port Louis, which could enable the old city to be restored and regenerated rather than redeveloped in modernist architecture, as has happened in the new smart cities model. A smart urban regeneration model is proposed backed by the pillars of smart infrastructure, culture, metabolism and governance. The proposed model is applied to the context of Port Louis to generate an urban regeneration scheme. The potential benefits in terms of financial outcomes, investment attraction and job creation are explored through a combined application of econometric forecasting models. The results support positive figures of both investment and job creation, and the findings of this study aim at informing and providing the governing bodies of Port Louis with a tangible solution for revamping the centuries-old capital city, as well as demonstrating to the world that smart cities can mean sensitive urban regeneration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Cross-Reading Approach to Smart City: A European Perspective of Chinese Smart Cities
Smart Cities 2018, 1(1), 26-52; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities1010003
Received: 9 May 2018 / Revised: 5 July 2018 / Accepted: 25 July 2018 / Published: 2 August 2018
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Abstract
The present study, after a literature review of the smart city definitions and ranking tools in Europe and in China, presents a cross-reading approach to the Chinese smart cities concept and implementation. It is indeed nowadays mandatory to re-convert cities in sustainable and
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The present study, after a literature review of the smart city definitions and ranking tools in Europe and in China, presents a cross-reading approach to the Chinese smart cities concept and implementation. It is indeed nowadays mandatory to re-convert cities in sustainable and smart ecosystems and this can be done with different approaches. In this frame, the role of ICT—the glue of the smart city concept—is central and pervasive. The Smart city model could be a way to reverse the actual trend of cities, re-defining an integrated approach between tangible and intangible infrastructures of cities. Future cities are influenced by two main different visions with different connotations that come along with the planning capacity and with the ability of countries to follow a coherent and sustainable development project. European approach for planning is quite consolidated and based on a long term holistic vision, while Chinese vision is catching up with the dramatic speed of urbanization, deploying critical infrastructures in most cases without a long-term view. On the other hand, Chinese projects are in some cases exemplary for Europe where many constraints and regulatory issues put a strong limitation on the many possible implementations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Redefining the Smart City: Culture, Metabolism and Governance
Smart Cities 2018, 1(1), 4-25; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities1010002
Received: 26 June 2018 / Revised: 7 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
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Abstract
The Smart City concept is still evolving and can be viewed as a branding exercise by big corporations, which is why the concept is not being used by the United Nations (U.N.). Smart Cities tend to represent the information, communication, and technological (ICT)
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The Smart City concept is still evolving and can be viewed as a branding exercise by big corporations, which is why the concept is not being used by the United Nations (U.N.). Smart Cities tend to represent the information, communication, and technological (ICT) industry alone without considering the values and cultural and historical profiles that some cities hold as legacies. However, the technology inherent in Smart Cities promises efficiencies and options that could allow cities to be more “inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable” as required by the U.N. agenda including cultural heritage. There is a notable lack of Smart City application to cultural and historical urban fabrics. Instead, the modernist new town approach has emerged under this new rubric leading to many problems such as urban decay and unsustainable car dependence. This study therefore presents a review of the literature on the nature, challenges, and opportunities of Smart Cities. A new Smart Cities framework is proposed based on the dimensions of culture, metabolism, and governance. These findings seek to inform policy makers of an alternative viewpoint on the Smart City paradigm, which focuses on urban outcomes rather than technology in isolation. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial Introducing Smart Cities: A Transdisciplinary Journal on the Science and Technology of Smart Cities
Smart Cities 2018, 1(1), 1-3; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities1010001
Received: 14 July 2018 / Accepted: 14 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
The concept of a smart city includes a high degree of information technology integration, but goes beyond the use of ICT for better resource use and less emissions. [...] Full article
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