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Immunomodulatory Effects of TGF-β Family Signaling within Intestinal Epithelial Cells and Carcinomas

1
Department of Surgery, Section of Surgical Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
2
Department of Cell & Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Gastrointest. Disord. 2019, 1(2), 290-300; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord1020024
Received: 4 June 2019 / Revised: 18 June 2019 / Accepted: 21 June 2019 / Published: 25 June 2019
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Abstract

TGF-β superfamily signaling is responsible for many critical cellular functions including control of cell growth, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. TGF-β appears to be critical in gastrulation, embryonic development, and morphogenesis, and it retains pleiotropic roles in many adult tissues and cell types in a highly context-dependent manner. While TGF-β signaling within leukocytes is known to have an immunosuppressive role, its immunomodulatory effects within epithelial cells and epithelial cancers is less well understood. Recent data has emerged that suggests TGF-β pathway signaling within epithelial cells may directly modulate pro-inflammatory chemokine/cytokine production and resultant leukocyte recruitment. This immunomodulation by epithelial TGF-β pathway signaling may directly impact tumorigenesis and tumor progression through modulation of the epithelial microenvironment, although causal pathways responsible for such an observation remain incompletely investigated. This review presents the published literature as it relates to the immunomodulatory effects of TGF-β family signaling within intestinal epithelial cells and carcinomas. View Full-Text
Keywords: TGF-beta; transforming growth factor beta; colon cancer; inflammatory bowel disease; IBD TGF-beta; transforming growth factor beta; colon cancer; inflammatory bowel disease; IBD
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Marincola Smith, P.; Means, A.L.; Beauchamp, R.D. Immunomodulatory Effects of TGF-β Family Signaling within Intestinal Epithelial Cells and Carcinomas. Gastrointest. Disord. 2019, 1, 290-300.

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