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Heritage, Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2020) – 9 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Architectural heritage is being deeply threatened by extreme weather events due to ongoing climate [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
The Noninvasive Analysis of Paint Mixtures on Canvas Using an EPR MOUSE
Heritage 2020, 3(1), 140-151; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3010009 - 12 Mar 2020
Viewed by 338
Abstract
Many artists create the variety of colors in their paintings by mixing a small number of primary pigments. Therefore, analytical techniques for studying paintings must be capable of determining the components of mixtures. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is one of many techniques [...] Read more.
Many artists create the variety of colors in their paintings by mixing a small number of primary pigments. Therefore, analytical techniques for studying paintings must be capable of determining the components of mixtures. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is one of many techniques that can achieve this, however it is invasive. With the recent introduction of the EPR mobile universal surface explorer (MOUSE), EPR is no longer invasive. The EPR MOUSE and a least squares regression algorithm were used to noninvasively identify pairwise mixtures of seven different paramagnetic pigments in paint on canvas. This capability will help art conservators, historians, and restorers to study paintings with EPR spectroscopy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Artistic Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle
Widespread Difficulties and Applications in the Monitoring of Historical Buildings: The Case of the Realm of Venaria Reale
Heritage 2020, 3(1), 128-139; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3010008 - 10 Mar 2020
Viewed by 390
Abstract
Environmental monitoring represents a key step for restaurateurs to follow who strive to ensure the preservation of buildings and artifacts while allowing for people’s thermal comfort. This paper describes the possibilities and main issues arising from the study of indoor microclimates. The presented [...] Read more.
Environmental monitoring represents a key step for restaurateurs to follow who strive to ensure the preservation of buildings and artifacts while allowing for people’s thermal comfort. This paper describes the possibilities and main issues arising from the study of indoor microclimates. The presented case study focuses on the monitoring data analysis for two rooms of the Realm of Venaria Reale, in Turin. The adopted methodology provides for the gathering of knowledge about the history, the geometry, and the change of use in the course of the lifetime of the building. This information allows us to construct a virtual model of the building, through which it is possible to evaluate the past and present and to hypothesize future scenarios regarding the indoor environmental conditions. Moreover, this paper presents a specific index, namely the Heritage Microclimate Risk (HMR), which enables us to evaluate the risk level to which the artifacts kept within historic buildings are exposed. With that database of information, we can preemptively define which actions (managerial and structural) would need to be taken for the preservation of the artifacts and the building itself, avoiding the possible risk component taken by working on the real building. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficiency and Retrofit of Historic Buildings)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Chemical and Mechanical Differences between Historic and Modern Scots Pine Wood
Heritage 2020, 3(1), 116-127; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3010007 - 24 Feb 2020
Viewed by 325
Abstract
Timber is one of the most common historic building materials, but relatively little is known about how it ages in situ. Here we investigate historic and modern Scots pine to determine any chemical or mechanical differences between them. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy was [...] Read more.
Timber is one of the most common historic building materials, but relatively little is known about how it ages in situ. Here we investigate historic and modern Scots pine to determine any chemical or mechanical differences between them. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy was used to investigate differences in the chemical composition of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) timber, comparing small samples from historic beams about 500 years old with modern timber. The hemicellulosic acetyl content was reduced by about half in the historic samples, uniformly across the thickness of the beams. A chemical mechanism was therefore suggested for the loss of acetyl groups, as has been observed in paper. In paper, deacetylation and the resulting release of acetic acid are accompanied by loss of strength. Mechanical testing of the historic timber was difficult because the available length of the samples along the grain was only 20 mm. After developing a miniaturized compression test developed for the purpose, it was shown that the relative stiffness of the historic Scots pine samples was reduced by about half compared to modern material. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Post-War Cultural Heritage Preservation in Kosovo: Rethinking the Implementation of Ahtisaari Plan Annex V
Heritage 2020, 3(1), 98-115; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3010006 - 17 Feb 2020
Viewed by 598
Abstract
Current works have focused on the role of urban heritage to sustainable development in postwar cities and have highlighted the significance of participatory and inclusive approaches that involve citizens and key stakeholders in the conservation and regeneration of heritage areas. However, this task [...] Read more.
Current works have focused on the role of urban heritage to sustainable development in postwar cities and have highlighted the significance of participatory and inclusive approaches that involve citizens and key stakeholders in the conservation and regeneration of heritage areas. However, this task is rather complex and challenging, especially in areas inhabited by multiple ethnic groups. Skills in negotiation and building trust are as important as skills in restoration and conservation of the physical fabric. However, the current literature lacks in-depth understandings of how negotiations in these contexts work and what we can learn from the past. The aim of this paper is to explore this issue by using a case study analysis, in particular, that of Kosovo. This paper looks at how the process developed during the implementation period of Annex V of the Comprehensive Proposal for the Kosovo Status Settlement (CSP) related to cultural heritage preservation. We analyze the sociocultural and political dynamics on the ground by focusing on Article 4 that deals with protective zones. With a critical examination of the approaches taken by stakeholders, including the public discourse and the example of the historic centre of Prizren, we suggest rethinking the implementation of Annex V as a sustainable option, rather than looking at other (beyond Annex V) alternatives that could potentially undermine the inter-community rebuilding efforts, and instead of creating the basis for sustainable cultural heritage preservation and reconciliation would eventually contribute to escalation and deepening of the conflict. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring the “Cozy Cabal of Academics, Dealers and Collectors” through the Schøyen Collection
Heritage 2020, 3(1), 68-97; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3010005 - 09 Feb 2020
Viewed by 1782
Abstract
In the wake of the trade in ancient materials, several ethical and political issues arise that merit concern: the decimation of the cultural heritage of war-torn countries, proliferation of corruption, ideological connotations of orientalism, financial support of terrorism, and participation in networks involved [...] Read more.
In the wake of the trade in ancient materials, several ethical and political issues arise that merit concern: the decimation of the cultural heritage of war-torn countries, proliferation of corruption, ideological connotations of orientalism, financial support of terrorism, and participation in networks involved in money laundering, weapon sales, human trafficking and drugs. Moreover, trafficking and trading also have a harmful effect on the fabric of academia itself. This study uses open sources to track the history of the private Schøyen Collection, and the researchers and public institutions that have worked with and supported the collector. Focussing on the public debates that evolved around the Buddhist manuscripts and other looted or illicitly obtained material from Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iraq, this article unravels strategies to whitewash Schøyen’s and his research groups’ activities. Numerous elements are familiar from the field of antiquities trafficking research and as such adds to the growing body of knowledge about illicit trade and collecting. A noteworthy element in the Schøyen case is Martin Schøyen and his partners’ appeal to digital dissemination to divorce collections from their problematic provenance and history and thus circumvent contemporary ethical standards. Like paper publications, digital presentations contribute to the marketing and price formation of illicit objects. The Norwegian state’s potential purchase of the entire Schøyen collection was promoted with the aid of digital dissemination of the collection hosted by public institutions. In the wake of the Schøyen case, it is evident that in spite of formal regulations to thwart antiquities trafficking, the continuation of the trade rests on the attitudes and practice of scholars and institutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Art and Antiquities Crime)
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Open AccessArticle
A Scan-to-BIM Methodology Applied to Heritage Buildings
Heritage 2020, 3(1), 47-67; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3010004 - 06 Feb 2020
Viewed by 604
Abstract
Heritage buildings usually have complex (non-parametric) geometries that turn their digitization through conventional methods in inaccurate and time-consuming processes. When it comes to the survey and representation of historical assets, remote sensing technologies have been playing key roles in the last few years: [...] Read more.
Heritage buildings usually have complex (non-parametric) geometries that turn their digitization through conventional methods in inaccurate and time-consuming processes. When it comes to the survey and representation of historical assets, remote sensing technologies have been playing key roles in the last few years: 3D laser scanning and photogrammetry surveys save time in the field, while proving to be extremely accurate at registering non-regular geometries of buildings. However, the efficient transformation of remote-sensing data into as-built parametric smart models is currently an unsolved challenge. A pragmatic and organized Historic Building Information Modeling (HBIM) methodology is essential in order to obtain a consistent model that can bring benefits and integrate conservation and restoration work. This article addresses the creation of an HBIM model of heritage assets using 3D laser scanning and photogrammetry. Our findings are illustrated in one case study: The Engine House Paços Reais in Lisbon. The paper first describes how and what measures should be taken to plan a careful scan-to-HBIM process. Second, the description of the remote-sensing survey campaign is conducted accordingly and is aimed at a BIM output, including the process of data alignment, cleaning, and merging. Finally, the HBIM modeling phase is described, based on point cloud data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heritage Building Information Modeling (HBIM))
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Open AccessArticle
An Experimental Study on the Effect of Water on Historic Brickwork Masonry
Heritage 2020, 3(1), 29-46; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3010003 - 10 Jan 2020
Viewed by 513
Abstract
Architectural heritage is deeply threatened by extreme weather events due to ongoing climatic change. Since these phenomena are becoming more and more serious, their effects cannot be neglected when a reliable assessment of a historic masonry structure is required. In this paper, the [...] Read more.
Architectural heritage is deeply threatened by extreme weather events due to ongoing climatic change. Since these phenomena are becoming more and more serious, their effects cannot be neglected when a reliable assessment of a historic masonry structure is required. In this paper, the phenomenon of rising damp was studied, focusing on the influence of water on the unit weight of masonry walls made from fired clay bricks and lime mortar. This study consists of a basic experimental research on the variations in the unit weight of masonry undergoing an ageing treatment, which was simulated through some cycles of capillary water absorption and temperature changes. The experimental study proves that penetrating damp causes an increase in masonry unit weight of more than 20%. This basic result is significant in the structural assessment of historic masonry buildings. Subsequent papers will analyze the interaction with strengths parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seismic Vulnerability Assessment for Heritage Buildings)
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Open AccessCommunication
Geological Heritage of the Anthropocene Epoch—A Conceptual Viewpoint
Heritage 2020, 3(1), 19-28; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3010002 - 31 Dec 2019
Viewed by 475
Abstract
The growth of interest in the Anthropocene has coincided with the rise of geoheritage research and these ideas seem to be mutually enriching. However, very few previous investigations were devoted to the Anthropocene geoheritage. The conceptual treatment of the geoheritage classification demonstrates that [...] Read more.
The growth of interest in the Anthropocene has coincided with the rise of geoheritage research and these ideas seem to be mutually enriching. However, very few previous investigations were devoted to the Anthropocene geoheritage. The conceptual treatment of the geoheritage classification demonstrates that the majority of geoheritage types and forms are relevant to the Anthropocene. From types, the most relevant are the stratigraphical, economical and geomorphological types, which include, for instance, such unique objects as the Anthropocene global stratotype candidate sections, exploited ore deposits and man-made landforms, respectively. Ex-situ forms (such as museum collections) and many in-situ forms (such as quarries and roadcuts) result from the geological-scale activity of humans. The practical importance of the strong Anthropocene–geoheritage relationship is linked to communication of Anthropocene-related knowledge and better research coordination. Importantly, geosites and geopaks themselves manifest human influence on the global geological environment, that is, their establishment among the Anthropocene-related forces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geoheritage and Geo-Conservation)
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Open AccessArticle
Yellowing of Ancient Linen and Its Effects on the Colours of the Holy Face of Manoppello
Heritage 2020, 3(1), 1-18; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3010001 - 23 Dec 2019
Viewed by 627
Abstract
On both sides of the Veil of Manoppello, made with very thin linen, translucent linen threads, probably starched, a Holy Face of Jesus Christ is visible. During the centuries, the yellowing of the linen threads has changed the aspect of the original face, [...] Read more.
On both sides of the Veil of Manoppello, made with very thin linen, translucent linen threads, probably starched, a Holy Face of Jesus Christ is visible. During the centuries, the yellowing of the linen threads has changed the aspect of the original face, in particular producing unnatural colours of the eyes. Indeed, as inferred by some experimental evidences, both on a microscopic and a macroscopic scale, the eyes were probably originally blue. Blue was the colour mainly affected by the yellowing of the linen threads, leading to greenish shades not compatible with human irises’ colours. Thus, we think that this finding compelled an artist to retouch the eyes’ irises with brown colour. The theoretical analysis of degradation times of the cellulose contained in starched linen indicates that, at ambient temperature, the yellowing takes about ten centuries to reach 95% of its maximum. Due to its peculiar optical characteristics and historical vicissitudes, the Veil of Manoppello likely coincides with the Veronica’s Veil, the alleged relic of the face of Christ impressed during his Passion, just before his crucifixion. If the Manoppello and Veronica’s Veils are the same object, any hypothesized colour retouch was done just before its first known public procession and exhibition in Rome, i.e., before the year 1200, after ten centuries of yellowing. Therefore, the Veil of Manoppello could be very ancient, even of the Roman epoch. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Artistic Heritage)
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