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Particles, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Novel Ideas in Nonleptonic Decays of Double Heavy Baryons
Particles 2019, 2(2), 339-356; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles2020021
Received: 15 May 2019 / Revised: 6 June 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
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Abstract
The recent discovery of double charm baryon states by the LHCb Collaborarion and their high precision mass determination calls for a comprehensive analysis of the nonleptonic decays of double and single heavy baryons. Nonleptonic baryon decays play an important role in particle phenomenology [...] Read more.
The recent discovery of double charm baryon states by the LHCb Collaborarion and their high precision mass determination calls for a comprehensive analysis of the nonleptonic decays of double and single heavy baryons. Nonleptonic baryon decays play an important role in particle phenomenology since they allow for studying the interplay of long and short distance dynamics of the Standard Model (SM). Furthermore, they allow one to search for New Physics effects beyond the SM. We review recent progress in experimental and theoretical studies of the nonleptonic decays of heavy baryons with a focus on double charm baryon states and their decays. In particular, we discuss new ideas proposed by the present authors to calculate the W-exchange matrix elements of the nonleptonic decays of double heavy baryons. An important ingredient in our approach is the compositeness condition of Salam and Weinberg, and an effective implementation of infrared confinement both of which allow one to describe the nonperturbative structure of baryons composed of light and heavy quarks. Furthermore, we discuss an ab initio calculational method for the treatment of the so-called W-exchange diagrams generated by W ± boson exchange between quarks. We found that the W ± -exchange contributions are not suppressed in comparison with the tree-level (factorizing) diagrams and must be taken into account in the evaluation of matrix elements. Moreover, there are decay processes such as the doubly Cabibbo-suppressed decay Ξ c + p ϕ recently observed by the LHCb Collaboration, which is contributed to only by one single W-exchange diagram. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue QCD and Hadron Structure)
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Open AccessCommunication
The Source Term of the Non-Equilibrium Statistical Operator
Particles 2019, 2(2), 309-338; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles2020020
Received: 8 May 2019 / Revised: 3 June 2019 / Accepted: 4 June 2019 / Published: 6 June 2019
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Abstract
The method of Zubarev allows one to construct a statistical operator for the nonequilibrium. The von Neumann equation is modified introducing a source term that is considered as an infinitesimal small correction. This approach provides us with a very general and unified treatment [...] Read more.
The method of Zubarev allows one to construct a statistical operator for the nonequilibrium. The von Neumann equation is modified introducing a source term that is considered as an infinitesimal small correction. This approach provides us with a very general and unified treatment of nonequilibrium processes. Considering as an example the electrical conductivity, we discuss the modification of the von Neumann equation to describe a stationary nonequilibrium process. The Zubarev approach has to be generalized to open quantum systems. The interaction of the system with the irrelevant degrees of freedom of the bath is globally described by the von Neumann equation with a finite source term. This is interpreted as a relaxation process to an appropriate relevant statistical operator. As an alternative, a quantum master equation can be worked out where the coupling to the bath is described by a dissipator. The production of entropy is analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonequilibrium Phenomena in Strongly Correlated Systems)
Open AccessArticle
Quantum Vacuum: The Structure of Empty Space–Time and Quintessence with Gauge Symmetry Group SU(2) ⊗ U(1)
Particles 2019, 2(2), 281-308; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles2020019
Received: 16 March 2019 / Revised: 5 May 2019 / Accepted: 20 May 2019 / Published: 28 May 2019
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Abstract
We consider the formation of structured and massless particles with spin 1, by using the Yang–Mills-like stochastic equations system for the group symmetry SU(2)U(1) without taking into account the nonlinear term characterizing self-action. We [...] Read more.
We consider the formation of structured and massless particles with spin 1, by using the Yang–Mills-like stochastic equations system for the group symmetry S U ( 2 ) U ( 1 ) without taking into account the nonlinear term characterizing self-action. We prove that, in the first phase of relaxation, as a result of multi-scale random fluctuations of quantum fields, massless particles with spin 1, further referred as hions, are generated in the form of statistically stable quantized structures, which are localized on 2D topological manifolds. We also study the wave state and the geometrical structure of the hion when as a free particle and, accordingly, while it interacts with a random environment becoming a quasi-particle with a finite lifetime. In the second phase of relaxation, the vector boson makes spontaneous transitions to other massless and mass states. The problem of entanglement of two hions with opposite projections of the spins + 1 and 1 and the formation of a scalar zero-spin boson are also thoroughly studied. We analyze the properties of the scalar field and show that it corresponds to the Bose–Einstein (BE) condensate. The scalar boson decay problems, as well as a number of features characterizing the stability of BE condensate, are also discussed. Then, we report on the structure of empty space–time in the context of new properties of the quantum vacuum, implying on the existence of a natural quantum computer with complicated logic, which manifests in the form of dark energy. The possibilities of space–time engineering are also discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Anomaly-Induced Transport Phenomena from Imaginary-Time Formalism
Particles 2019, 2(2), 261-280; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles2020018
Received: 25 February 2019 / Revised: 14 April 2019 / Accepted: 6 May 2019 / Published: 16 May 2019
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Abstract
A derivation of anomaly-induced transport phenomena—the chiral magnetic/vortical effect—is revisited based on the imaginary-time formalism of quantum field theory. Considering the simplest anomalous system composed of a single Weyl fermion, we provide two derivations: perturbative (one-loop) evaluation of the anomalous transport coefficient, and [...] Read more.
A derivation of anomaly-induced transport phenomena—the chiral magnetic/vortical effect—is revisited based on the imaginary-time formalism of quantum field theory. Considering the simplest anomalous system composed of a single Weyl fermion, we provide two derivations: perturbative (one-loop) evaluation of the anomalous transport coefficient, and the anomaly matching for the local thermodynamic functional. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonequilibrium Phenomena in Strongly Correlated Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Application of the Non-Equilibrium Statistical Operator Method to the Dynamical Conductivity of Metallic and Classical Plasmas
Particles 2019, 2(2), 242-260; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles2020017
Received: 22 March 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 7 May 2019
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Abstract
The fruitfulness of the method of a non-equilibrium statistical operator (NSO) and generalized linear response theory is demonstrated calculating the permittivity, dynamical conductivity, absorption coefficient, and dynamical collision frequency of plasmas in the degenerate, metallic state as well as classical plasmas. A wide [...] Read more.
The fruitfulness of the method of a non-equilibrium statistical operator (NSO) and generalized linear response theory is demonstrated calculating the permittivity, dynamical conductivity, absorption coefficient, and dynamical collision frequency of plasmas in the degenerate, metallic state as well as classical plasmas. A wide range of plasma parameters is considered, and a wide range of frequencies of laser radiation acting on such plasmas is treated. New analytical expressions for the plasma response are obtained by this method, and several limiting cases are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonequilibrium Phenomena in Strongly Correlated Systems)
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Open AccessCommunication
Bose-Einstein Condensation from the QCD Boltzmann Equation
Particles 2019, 2(2), 231-241; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles2020016
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 12 April 2019 / Published: 22 April 2019
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Abstract
We present a novel numerical scheme to solve the QCD Boltzmann equation in the soft scattering approximation, for the quenched limit of QCD. Using this we can readily investigate the evolution of spatially homogeneous systems of gluons distributed isotropically in momentum space. We [...] Read more.
We present a novel numerical scheme to solve the QCD Boltzmann equation in the soft scattering approximation, for the quenched limit of QCD. Using this we can readily investigate the evolution of spatially homogeneous systems of gluons distributed isotropically in momentum space. We numerically confirm that for so-called “overpopulated” initial conditions, a (transient) Bose-Einstein condensate could emerge in a finite time. Going beyond existing results, we analyze the formation dynamics of this condensate. The scheme is extended to systems with cylindrically symmetric momentum distributions, in order to investigate the effects of anisotropy. In particular, we compare the rates at which isotropization and equilibration occur. We also compare our results from the soft scattering scheme to the relaxation time approximation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonequilibrium Phenomena in Strongly Correlated Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Nonperturbative Kinetic Description of Electron-Hole Excitations in Graphene in a Time Dependent Electric Field of Arbitrary Polarization
Particles 2019, 2(2), 208-230; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles2020015
Received: 16 December 2018 / Revised: 31 March 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 16 April 2019
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Abstract
On the basis of the well-known kinetic description of ee+ vacuum pair creation in strong electromagnetic fields in D=3+1 QED we construct a nonperturbative kinetic approach to electron-hole excitations in graphene under the action of strong, [...] Read more.
On the basis of the well-known kinetic description of e e + vacuum pair creation in strong electromagnetic fields in D = 3 + 1 QED we construct a nonperturbative kinetic approach to electron-hole excitations in graphene under the action of strong, time-dependent electric fields. We start from the simplest model of low-energy excitations around the Dirac points in the Brillouin zone. The corresponding kinetic equations are analyzed by nonperturbative analytical and numerical methods that allow to avoid difficulties characteristic for the perturbation theory. We consider different models for external fields acting in both, one and two dimensions. In the latter case we discuss the nonlinear interaction of the orthogonal currents in graphene which plays the role of an active nonlinear medium. In particular, this allows to govern the current in one direction by means of the electric field acting in the orthogonal direction. Investigating the polarization current we detected the existence of high frequency damped oscillations in a constant external electric field. When the electric field is abruptly turned off residual inertial oscillations of the polarization current are obtained. Further nonlinear effects are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonequilibrium Phenomena in Strongly Correlated Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Reworking Zubarev’s Approach to Nonequilibrium Quantum Statistical Mechanics
Particles 2019, 2(2), 197-207; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles2020014
Received: 3 February 2019 / Revised: 18 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 8 April 2019
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Abstract
In this work, the nonequilibrium density operator approach introduced by Zubarev more than 50 years ago to describe quantum systems at a local thermodynamic equilibrium is revisited. This method, which was used to obtain the first “Kubo” formula of shear viscosity, is especially [...] Read more.
In this work, the nonequilibrium density operator approach introduced by Zubarev more than 50 years ago to describe quantum systems at a local thermodynamic equilibrium is revisited. This method, which was used to obtain the first “Kubo” formula of shear viscosity, is especially suitable to describe quantum effects in fluids. This feature makes it a viable tool to describe the physics of Quark–Gluon Plasma in relativistic nuclear collisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonequilibrium Phenomena in Strongly Correlated Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Strong Effective Coupling, Meson Ground States, and Glueball within Analytic Confinement
Particles 2019, 2(2), 180-196; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles2020013
Received: 13 February 2019 / Revised: 15 March 2019 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 / Published: 1 April 2019
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Abstract
The phenomena of strong running coupling and hadron mass generating have been studied in the framework of a QCD-inspired relativistic model of quark-gluon interaction with infrared-confined propagators. We derived a meson mass equation and revealed a specific new behavior of the mass-dependent strong [...] Read more.
The phenomena of strong running coupling and hadron mass generating have been studied in the framework of a QCD-inspired relativistic model of quark-gluon interaction with infrared-confined propagators. We derived a meson mass equation and revealed a specific new behavior of the mass-dependent strong coupling α ^ s ( M ) defined in the time-like region. A new infrared freezing point α ^ s ( 0 ) = 1.03198 at origin has been found and it did not depend on the confinement scale Λ > 0 . Independent and new estimates on the scalar glueball mass, ‘radius’ and gluon condensate value have been performed. The spectrum of conventional mesons have been calculated by introducing a minimal set of parameters: the masses of constituent quarks and Λ . The obtained values are in good agreement with the latest experimental data with relative errors less than 1.8 percent. Accurate estimates of the leptonic decay constants of pseudoscalar and vector mesons have been performed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue QCD and Hadron Structure)
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Open AccessArticle
Kinetic Approach to Pair Production in Strong Fields—Two Lessons for Applications to Heavy-Ion Collisions
Particles 2019, 2(2), 166-179; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles2020012
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 3 March 2019 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 / Published: 1 April 2019
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Abstract
The kinetic-equation approach to particle production in strong, time-dependent external fields is revisited and three limiting cases are discussed for different field patterns: the Sauter pulse, a harmonic pulse with a Gaussian envelope, and a Poisson-distributed stochastic field. It is shown that for [...] Read more.
The kinetic-equation approach to particle production in strong, time-dependent external fields is revisited and three limiting cases are discussed for different field patterns: the Sauter pulse, a harmonic pulse with a Gaussian envelope, and a Poisson-distributed stochastic field. It is shown that for transient subcritical electric fields E ( t ) a finite residual particle number density n ( ) would be absent if the field-dependence of the dynamical phase in the Schwinger source term would be neglected. In this case the distribution function of created particles follows the law f ( t ) E 2 ( t ) . Two lessons for particle production in heavy-ion collisions are derived from this exercise. First: the shorter the (Sauter-type) pulse, the higher the residual density of produced particles. Second: although the Schwinger process in a string-type field produces a non-thermal particle spectrum, a Poissonian distribution of the (fluctuating) strings produces a thermal spectrum with an apparent temperature that coincides with the Hawking–Unruh temperature for the mean value of the string tension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonequilibrium Phenomena in Strongly Correlated Systems)
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