Next Issue

Table of Contents

Neuroglia, Volume 1, Issue 1 (September 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-19
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle Mediation of FoxO1 in Activated Neuroglia Deficient for Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase B during Vascular Degeneration
Neuroglia 2018, 1(1), 280-291; https://doi.org/10.3390/neuroglia1010019
Received: 4 July 2018 / Revised: 18 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 7 September 2018
Viewed by 328 | PDF Full-text (2496 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy is closely associated with the breakdown of the neurovascular unit including the glial cells. Deficiency of nucleoside diphosphate kinase B (NDPK-B) results in retinal vasoregression mimicking diabetic retinopathy. Increased retinal expression of Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) initiates vasoregression. In this
[...] Read more.
The pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy is closely associated with the breakdown of the neurovascular unit including the glial cells. Deficiency of nucleoside diphosphate kinase B (NDPK-B) results in retinal vasoregression mimicking diabetic retinopathy. Increased retinal expression of Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) initiates vasoregression. In this study, Müller cell activation, glial Ang-2 expression, and the underlying mechanisms were investigated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic NDPK-B deficient (KO) retinas and Müller cells isolated from the NDPK-B KO retinas. Müller cells were activated and Ang-2 expression was predominantly increased in Müller cells in normoglycemic NDPK-B KO retinas, similar to diabetic wild type (WT) retinas. Diabetes induction in the NDPK-B KO mice did not further increase its activation. Additionally, cultured NDPK-B KO Müller cells were more activated and showed higher Ang-2 expression than WT cells. Müller cell activation and Ang-2 elevation were observed upon high glucose treatment in WT, but not in NDPK-B KO cells. Moreover, increased levels of the transcription factor forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) were detected in non-diabetic NDPK-B KO Müller cells. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of FoxO1 in NDPK-B deficient cells interfered with Ang-2 upregulation. These data suggest that FoxO1 mediates Ang-2 upregulation induced by NDPK-B deficiency in the Müller cells and thus contributes to the onset of retinal vascular degeneration. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Syncytial Isopotentiality: An Electrical Feature of Spinal Cord Astrocyte Networks
Neuroglia 2018, 1(1), 271-279; https://doi.org/10.3390/neuroglia1010018
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 20 August 2018 / Accepted: 22 August 2018 / Published: 24 August 2018
Viewed by 568 | PDF Full-text (1329 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to strong electrical coupling, syncytial isopotentiality emerges as a physiological mechanism that coordinates astrocytes into a highly efficient system in brain homeostasis. Although this electrophysiological phenomenon has now been observed in astrocyte networks established by different astrocyte subtypes, the spinal cord remains
[...] Read more.
Due to strong electrical coupling, syncytial isopotentiality emerges as a physiological mechanism that coordinates astrocytes into a highly efficient system in brain homeostasis. Although this electrophysiological phenomenon has now been observed in astrocyte networks established by different astrocyte subtypes, the spinal cord remains a brain region that is still unexplored. In ALDH1L1-eGFP transgenic mice, astrocytes can be visualized by confocal microscopy and the spinal cord astrocytes in grey matter are organized in a distinctive pattern. Namely, each astrocyte resides with more directly coupled neighbors at shorter interastrocytic distances compared to protoplasmic astrocytes in the hippocampal CA1 region. In whole-cell patch clamp recording, the spinal cord grey matter astrocytes exhibit passive K+ conductance and a highly hyperpolarized membrane potential of −80 mV. To answer whether syncytial isopotentiality is a shared feature of astrocyte networks in the spinal cord, the K+ content in a physiological recording solution was substituted by equimolar Na+ for whole-cell recording in spinal cord slices. In uncoupled single astrocytes, this substitution of endogenous K+ with Na+ is known to depolarize astrocytes to around 0 mV as predicted by Goldman–Hodgkin–Katz (GHK) equation. In contrast, the existence of syncytial isopotentiality is indicated by a disobedience of the GHK predication as the recorded astrocyte’s membrane potential remains at a quasi-physiological level that is comparable to its neighbors due to strong electrical coupling. We showed that the strength of syncytial isopotentiality in spinal cord grey matter is significantly stronger than that of astrocyte network in the hippocampal CA1 region. Thus, this study corroborates the notion that syncytial isopotentiality most likely represents a system-wide electrical feature of astrocytic networks throughout the brain. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Inflammatory Cytokines Facilitate the Sensitivity of P2X7 Receptors Toward Extracellular ATP at Neural Progenitor Cells of the Rodent Hippocampal Subgranular Zone
Neuroglia 2018, 1(1), 258-270; https://doi.org/10.3390/neuroglia1010017
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 16 August 2018 / Published: 22 August 2018
Viewed by 427 | PDF Full-text (1723 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Organotypic hippocampal slice cultures were used to model the effects of neuroinflammatory conditions following an epileptic state on functional P2X7 receptors (Rs) of subgranular zone (SGZ) neural progenitor cells (NPCs). The compound, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), is known to cause pathological firing of neurons, consequently
[...] Read more.
Organotypic hippocampal slice cultures were used to model the effects of neuroinflammatory conditions following an epileptic state on functional P2X7 receptors (Rs) of subgranular zone (SGZ) neural progenitor cells (NPCs). The compound, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), is known to cause pathological firing of neurons, consequently facilitating the release of various transmitter substances including ATP. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) both potentiated the dibenzoyl-ATP (Bz-ATP)-induced current amplitudes in NPCs, although via different mechanisms. Whereas LPS acted via promoting ATP release, IL-1β acted via its own receptor to directly influence P2X7Rs. Thus, the effect of LPS was inhibited by the ecto-ATPase inhibitor, apyrase, but not by the IL-1β antagonist, interleukin-1RA (IL-1RA); by contrast, the effect of IL-1β was inhibited by IL-1RA, but not by apyrase. Eventually, incubation with 4-AP upregulated the number of nestin/glial fibrillary acidic protein/P2X7R immunoreactive cells and their appropriate staining intensity, suggesting increased synthesis of P2X7Rs at NPCs. In conclusion, inflammatory cytokines accumulating after epilepsy-like neuronal firing may facilitate the effect of endogenous ATP at P2X7Rs of NPCs, thereby probably promoting necrosis/apoptosis and subsequent cell death. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview An Early History of Neuroglial Research: Personalities
Neuroglia 2018, 1(1), 245-257; https://doi.org/10.3390/neuroglia1010016
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 31 July 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 16 August 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 727 | PDF Full-text (36277 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neuroscience, like most other divisions of natural philosophy, emerged in the Hellenistic world following the first experimental discoveries of the nerves connecting the brain with the body. The first fundamental doctrine on brain function highlighted the role for a specific substance, pneuma, which
[...] Read more.
Neuroscience, like most other divisions of natural philosophy, emerged in the Hellenistic world following the first experimental discoveries of the nerves connecting the brain with the body. The first fundamental doctrine on brain function highlighted the role for a specific substance, pneuma, which appeared as a substrate for brain function and, being transported through the hollow nerves, operated the peripheral organs. A paradigm shift occurred in 17th century when brain function was relocated to the grey matter. Beginning from the end of the 18th century, the existence of active and passive portions of the nervous tissue were postulated. The passive part of the nervous tissue has been further conceptualised by Rudolf Virchow, who introduced the notion of neuroglia as a connective tissue of the brain and the spinal cord. During the second half of the 19th century, the cellular architecture of the brain was been extensively studied, which led to an in-depth morphological characterisation of multiple cell types, including a detailed description of the neuroglia. Here, we present the views and discoveries of the main personalities of early neuroglial research. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Ultrastructural Remodeling of the Neurovascular Unit in the Female Diabetic db/db Model—Part I: Astrocyte
Neuroglia 2018, 1(1), 220-244; https://doi.org/10.3390/neuroglia1010015
Received: 4 July 2018 / Revised: 24 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 7 August 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1081 | PDF Full-text (10723 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus are associated with cognitive impairment, known as diabetic cognopathy. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that neurovascular unit(s) (NVU) within cerebral cortical gray matter regions display abnormal cellular remodeling. The monogenic (Leprdb
[...] Read more.
Obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus are associated with cognitive impairment, known as diabetic cognopathy. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that neurovascular unit(s) (NVU) within cerebral cortical gray matter regions display abnormal cellular remodeling. The monogenic (Leprdb) female diabetic db/db (BKS.CgDock7m +/+Leprdb/J; DBC) mouse model was utilized for this ultrastructural study. Upon sacrifice (at 20 weeks of age), left-brain hemispheres of the DBC and age-matched non-diabetic wild-type control C57BL/KsJ (CKC) mice were immediately immersion-fixed. We found attenuation/loss of endothelial blood–brain barrier tight/adherens junctions and pericytes, thickening of the basement membrane, aberrant mitochondria, and pathological remodeling of protoplasmic astrocytes. Additionally, there were adherent red blood cells and NVU microbleeds (cortical layer III) in DBC mice, which were not observed in CKC animals. While this study represents only a “snapshot in time”, it does allow for cellular remodeling comparisons between DBC and CKC. In this paper, the first of a three-part series, we report the observational ultrastructural remodeling changes of the NVU and its protoplasmic astrocytes in relation to the surrounding neuropil. Having identified multiple abnormal cellular remodeling changes in the DBC as compared to CKC models, we will design future experiments to evaluate various treatment modalities in DBC mice. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview You Do Not Mess with the Glia
Neuroglia 2018, 1(1), 193-219; https://doi.org/10.3390/neuroglia1010014
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 3 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 863 | PDF Full-text (6659 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Vertebrate neurons are enormously variable in morphology and distribution. While different glial cell types do exist, they are much less diverse than neurons. Over the last decade, we have conducted quantitative studies of the absolute numbers, densities, and proportions at which non-neuronal cells
[...] Read more.
Vertebrate neurons are enormously variable in morphology and distribution. While different glial cell types do exist, they are much less diverse than neurons. Over the last decade, we have conducted quantitative studies of the absolute numbers, densities, and proportions at which non-neuronal cells occur in relation to neurons. These studies have advanced the notion that glial cells are much more constrained than neurons in how much they can vary in both development and evolution. Recent evidence from studies on gene expression profiles that characterize glial cells—in the context of progressive epigenetic changes in chromatin during morphogenesis—supports the notion of constrained variation of glial cells in development and evolution, and points to the possibility that this constraint is related to the late differentiation of the various glial cell types. Whether restricted variation is a biological given (a simple consequence of late glial cell differentiation) or a physiological constraint (because, well, you do not mess with the glia without consequences that compromise brain function to the point of rendering those changes unviable), we predict that the restricted variation in size and distribution of glial cells has important consequences for neural tissue function that is aligned with their many fundamental roles being uncovered. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommentary The History of the Decline and Fall of the Glial Numbers Legend
Neuroglia 2018, 1(1), 188-192; https://doi.org/10.3390/neuroglia1010013
Received: 2 July 2018 / Accepted: 4 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
Viewed by 574 | PDF Full-text (576 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the field of neuroscience and, more specifically glial cell biology, one of the most fundamentally intriguing and enduring questions has been “how many neuronal cells—neurones and glia—are there in the human brain?”. From the outset, the driving force behind this question was
[...] Read more.
In the field of neuroscience and, more specifically glial cell biology, one of the most fundamentally intriguing and enduring questions has been “how many neuronal cells—neurones and glia—are there in the human brain?”. From the outset, the driving force behind this question was undoubtedly the scientific quest for knowledge of why humans are more intelligent than even our nearest relatives; the ‘neuronal doctrine’ dictated we must have more neurones than other animals. The early histological studies indicated a vast space between neurones that was filled by ‘nervenkitt’, later identified as neuroglia; arguably, this was the origin of the myth that glia massively outnumber neurones in the human brain. The myth eventually became embedded in ideology when later studies seemed to confirm that glia outnumber neurones in the human cortex—the seat of humanity—and that there was an inevitable rise in the glia-to-neurone ratio (GNR) as we climbed the evolutionary tree. This could be described as the ‘glial doctrine’—that the rise of intelligence and the rise of glia go hand-in-hand. In many ways, the GNR became a mantra for working on glial cells at a time when the neuronal doctrine ruled the world. However, the work of Suzana Herculano-Houzel which she reviews in this first volume of Neuroglia has led the way in demonstrating that neurones and glia are almost equal in number in the human cortex and there is no inexorable phylogenetic rise in the GNR. In this commentary we chart the fall and decline of the mythology of the GNR. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Expression of Kir2.1 Inward Rectifying Potassium Channels in Optic Nerve Glia: Evidence for Heteromeric Association with Kir4.1 and Kir5.1
Neuroglia 2018, 1(1), 176-187; https://doi.org/10.3390/neuroglia1010012
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 3 July 2018 / Accepted: 4 July 2018 / Published: 10 July 2018
Viewed by 393 | PDF Full-text (1865 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Inward rectifying potassium (Kir) channels comprise a large family with diverse biophysical properties. A predominant feature of central nervous system (CNS) glia is their expression of Kir4.1, which as homomers are weakly rectifying channels, but form strongly rectifying channels as heteromers with Kir2.1.
[...] Read more.
Inward rectifying potassium (Kir) channels comprise a large family with diverse biophysical properties. A predominant feature of central nervous system (CNS) glia is their expression of Kir4.1, which as homomers are weakly rectifying channels, but form strongly rectifying channels as heteromers with Kir2.1. However, the extent of Kir2.1 expression and their association with Kir4.1 in glia throughout the CNS is unclear. We have examined this in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes of the mouse optic nerve, a typical CNS white matter tract. Western blot and immunocytochemistry demonstrates that optic nerve astrocytes and oligodendrocytes express Kir2.1 and that it co-localises with Kir4.1. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis provided further evidence that Kir2.1 associate with Kir4.1 and, moreover, Kir2.1 expression was significantly reduced in optic nerves and brains from Kir4.1 knock-out mice. In addition, optic nerve glia express Kir5.1, which may associate with Kir2.1 to form silent channels. Immunocytochemical and co-immunoprecipitation analyses indicate that Kir2.1 associate with Kir5.1 in optic nerve glia, but not in the brain. The results provide evidence that astrocytes and oligodendrocytes may express heteromeric Kir2.1/Kir4.1 and Kir2.1/Kir5.1 channels, together with homomeric Kir2.1 and Kir4.1 channels. In astrocytes, expression of multiple Kir channels is the biophysical substrate for the uptake and redistribution of K+ released during neuronal electrical activity known as ‘potassium spatial buffering’. Our findings suggest a similar potential role for the diverse Kir channels expressed by oligodendrocytes, which by way of their myelin sheaths are intimately associated with the sites of action potential propagation and axonal K+ release. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview NG2 Glia: Novel Roles beyond Re-/Myelination
Neuroglia 2018, 1(1), 151-175; https://doi.org/10.3390/neuroglia1010011
Received: 10 June 2018 / Revised: 24 June 2018 / Accepted: 29 June 2018 / Published: 4 July 2018
Viewed by 680 | PDF Full-text (946 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neuron-glia antigen 2-expressing glial cells (NG2 glia) serve as oligodendrocyte progenitors during development and adulthood. However, recent studies have shown that these cells represent not only a transitional stage along the oligodendroglial lineage, but also constitute a specific cell type endowed with typical
[...] Read more.
Neuron-glia antigen 2-expressing glial cells (NG2 glia) serve as oligodendrocyte progenitors during development and adulthood. However, recent studies have shown that these cells represent not only a transitional stage along the oligodendroglial lineage, but also constitute a specific cell type endowed with typical properties and functions. Namely, NG2 glia (or subsets of NG2 glia) establish physical and functional interactions with neurons and other central nervous system (CNS) cell types, that allow them to constantly monitor the surrounding neuropil. In addition to operating as sensors, NG2 glia have features that are expected for active modulators of neuronal activity, including the expression and release of a battery of neuromodulatory and neuroprotective factors. Consistently, cell ablation strategies targeting NG2 glia demonstrate that, beyond their role in myelination, these cells contribute to CNS homeostasis and development. In this review, we summarize and discuss the advancements achieved over recent years toward the understanding of such functions, and propose novel approaches for further investigations aimed at elucidating the multifaceted roles of NG2 glia. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Astrogliopathy in Tauopathies
Neuroglia 2018, 1(1), 126-150; https://doi.org/10.3390/neuroglia1010010
Received: 24 June 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 29 June 2018 / Published: 4 July 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 562 | PDF Full-text (8488 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Astrocytes are involved in many diseases of the central nervous system, not only as reactive cells to neuronal damage but also as primary actors in the pathological process. Astrogliopathy is a term used to designate the involvement of astrocytes as key elements in
[...] Read more.
Astrocytes are involved in many diseases of the central nervous system, not only as reactive cells to neuronal damage but also as primary actors in the pathological process. Astrogliopathy is a term used to designate the involvement of astrocytes as key elements in the pathogenesis and pathology of diseases and injuries of the central nervous system. Astrocytopathy is utilized to name non-reactive astrogliosis covering hypertrophy, atrophy and astroglial degeneration with loss of function in astrocytes and pathological remodeling, as well as senescent changes. Astrogliopathy and astrocytopathy are hallmarks of tauopathies—neurodegenerative diseases with abnormal hyper-phosphorylated tau aggregates in neurons and glial cells. The involvement of astrocytes covers different disease-specific types such as tufted astrocytes, astrocytic plaques, thorn-shaped astrocytes, granular/fuzzy astrocytes, ramified astrocytes and astrocytes with globular inclusions, as well as others which are unnamed but not uncommon in familial frontotemporal degeneration linked to mutations in the tau gene. Knowledge of molecular differences among tau-containing astrocytes is only beginning, and their distinct functional implications remain rather poorly understood. However, tau-containing astrocytes in certain conditions have deleterious effects on neuronal function and nervous system integrity. Moreover, recent studies have shown that tau-containing astrocytes obtained from human brain tauopathies have a capacity for abnormal tau seeding and spreading in wild type mice. Inclusive conceptions include a complex scenario involving neurons, glial cells and local environmental factors that potentiate each other and promote disease progression in tauopathies. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Action Potential Firing Induces Sodium Transients in Macroglial Cells of the Mouse Corpus Callosum
Neuroglia 2018, 1(1), 106-125; https://doi.org/10.3390/neuroglia1010009
Received: 14 June 2018 / Revised: 26 June 2018 / Accepted: 27 June 2018 / Published: 3 July 2018
Viewed by 478 | PDF Full-text (5946 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent work has established that glutamatergic synaptic activity induces transient sodium elevations in grey matter astrocytes by stimulating glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) and glutamate-aspartate transporter (GLAST). Glial sodium transients have diverse functional consequences but are largely unexplored in white matter. Here, we employed
[...] Read more.
Recent work has established that glutamatergic synaptic activity induces transient sodium elevations in grey matter astrocytes by stimulating glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) and glutamate-aspartate transporter (GLAST). Glial sodium transients have diverse functional consequences but are largely unexplored in white matter. Here, we employed ratiometric imaging to analyse sodium signalling in macroglial cells of mouse corpus callosum. Electrical stimulation resulted in robust sodium transients in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and NG2 glia, which were blocked by tetrodotoxin, demonstrating their dependence on axonal action potentials (APs). Action potential-induced sodium increases were strongly reduced by combined inhibition of ionotropic glutamate receptors and glutamate transporters, indicating that they are related to release of glutamate. While AMPA receptors were involved in sodium influx into all cell types, oligodendrocytes and NG2 glia showed an additional contribution of NMDA receptors. The transporter subtypes GLT-1 and GLAST were detected at the protein level and contributed to glutamate-induced glial sodium signals, indicating that both are functionally relevant for glutamate clearance in corpus callosum. In summary, our results demonstrate that white matter macroglial cells experience sodium influx through ionotropic glutamate receptors and glutamate uptake upon AP generation. Activity-induced glial sodium signalling may thus contribute to the communication between active axons and macroglial cells. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Sequential Contribution of Parenchymal and Neural Stem Cell-Derived Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells toward Remyelination
Neuroglia 2018, 1(1), 91-105; https://doi.org/10.3390/neuroglia1010008
Received: 1 May 2018 / Revised: 1 June 2018 / Accepted: 4 June 2018 / Published: 12 June 2018
Viewed by 523 | PDF Full-text (5218 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the adult mammalian forebrain, oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), also known as NG2 glia are distributed ubiquitously throughout the gray and white matter. They remain proliferative and continuously generate myelinating oligodendrocytes throughout life. In response to a demyelinating insult, OPCs proliferate rapidly and
[...] Read more.
In the adult mammalian forebrain, oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), also known as NG2 glia are distributed ubiquitously throughout the gray and white matter. They remain proliferative and continuously generate myelinating oligodendrocytes throughout life. In response to a demyelinating insult, OPCs proliferate rapidly and differentiate into oligodendrocytes which contribute to myelin repair. In addition to OPCs, neural stem cells (NSCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) also contribute to remyelinating oligodendrocytes, particularly in demyelinated lesions in the vicinity of the SVZ, such as the corpus callosum. To determine the relative contribution of local OPCs and NSC-derived cells toward myelin repair, we performed genetic fate mapping of OPCs and NSCs and compared their ability to generate oligodendrocytes after acute demyelination in the corpus callosum created by local injection of α-lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). We have found that local OPCs responded rapidly to acute demyelination, expanded in the lesion within seven days, and produced oligodendrocytes by two weeks after lesioning. By contrast, NSC-derived NG2 cells did not significantly increase in the lesion until four weeks after demyelination and generated fewer oligodendrocytes than parenchymal OPCs. These observations suggest that local OPCs could function as the primary responders to repair acutely demyelinated lesion, and that NSCs in the SVZ contribute to repopulating OPCs following their depletion due to oligodendrocyte differentiation. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview To Be or Not to Be: Environmental Factors that Drive Myelin Formation during Development and after CNS Trauma
Neuroglia 2018, 1(1), 63-90; https://doi.org/10.3390/neuroglia1010007
Received: 7 May 2018 / Revised: 4 June 2018 / Accepted: 4 June 2018 / Published: 11 June 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 643 | PDF Full-text (1235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Oligodendrocytes are specialized glial cells that myelinate central nervous system (CNS) axons. Historically, it was believed that the primary role of myelin was to compactly ensheath axons, providing the insulation necessary for rapid signal conduction. However, mounting evidence demonstrates the dynamic importance of
[...] Read more.
Oligodendrocytes are specialized glial cells that myelinate central nervous system (CNS) axons. Historically, it was believed that the primary role of myelin was to compactly ensheath axons, providing the insulation necessary for rapid signal conduction. However, mounting evidence demonstrates the dynamic importance of myelin and oligodendrocytes, including providing metabolic support to neurons and regulating axon protein distribution. As such, the development and maintenance of oligodendrocytes and myelin are integral to preserving CNS homeostasis and supporting proper functioning of widespread neural networks. Environmental signals are critical for proper oligodendrocyte lineage cell progression and their capacity to form functional compact myelin; these signals are markedly disturbed by injury to the CNS, which may compromise endogenous myelin repair capabilities. This review outlines some key environmental factors that drive myelin formation during development and compares that to the primary factors that define a CNS injury milieu. We aim to identify developmental factors disrupted after CNS trauma as well as pathogenic factors that negatively impact oligodendrocyte lineage cells, as these are potential therapeutic targets to promote myelin repair after injury or disease. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle l-Dopa and Fluoxetine Upregulate Astroglial 5-HT2B Receptors and Ameliorate Depression in Parkinson’s Disease Mice
Neuroglia 2018, 1(1), 48-62; https://doi.org/10.3390/neuroglia1010006
Received: 19 March 2018 / Revised: 13 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
Viewed by 773 | PDF Full-text (1247 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Here, we report the association between depressive behavior (anhedonia) and astroglial expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2B (5-HT2B) in an animal model of Parkinson’s disease, induced by bilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the striatum. Expression of the 5-HT2B receptor at
[...] Read more.
Here, we report the association between depressive behavior (anhedonia) and astroglial expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2B (5-HT2B) in an animal model of Parkinson’s disease, induced by bilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the striatum. Expression of the 5-HT2B receptor at the mRNA and protein level was decreased in the brain tissue of 6-OHDA-treated animals with anhedonia. Expression of the 5-HT2B receptor was corrected by four weeks treatment with either l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-dopa) or fluoxetine. Simultaneously, treatment with l-dopa abolished 6-OHDA effects on both depressive behavior and motor activity. In contrast, fluoxetine corrected 6-OHDA-induced depression but did not affect 6-OHDA-induced motor deficiency. In addition, 6-OHDA downregulated gene expression of the 5-HT2B receptor in astrocytes in purified cell culture and this downregulation was corrected by both l-dopa and fluoxetine. Our findings suggest that 6-OHDA-induced depressive behavior may be related to the downregulation of gene expression of the 5-HT2B receptor but 6-OHDA-induced motor deficiency reflects, arguably, dopamine depletion. Previously, we demonstrated that fluoxetine regulates gene expression in astrocytes by 5-HT2B receptor-mediated transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). However, the underlying mechanism of l-dopa action remains unclear. The present work indicates that the decrease of gene expression of the astroglial 5-HT2B receptor may contribute to development of depressive behavior in Parkinson’s disease. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Cooperation between NMDA-Type Glutamate and P2 Receptors for Neuroprotection during Stroke: Combining Astrocyte and Neuronal Protection
Neuroglia 2018, 1(1), 30-47; https://doi.org/10.3390/neuroglia1010005
Received: 13 February 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 8 March 2018 / Published: 14 March 2018
Viewed by 948 | PDF Full-text (20689 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Excitotoxicity is the principle mechanism of acute injury during stroke. It is defined as the unregulated accumulation of excitatory neurotransmitters such as glutamate within the extracellular space, leading to over-activation of receptors, ionic disruption, cell swelling, cytotoxic Ca2+ elevation and a feed-forward
[...] Read more.
Excitotoxicity is the principle mechanism of acute injury during stroke. It is defined as the unregulated accumulation of excitatory neurotransmitters such as glutamate within the extracellular space, leading to over-activation of receptors, ionic disruption, cell swelling, cytotoxic Ca2+ elevation and a feed-forward loop where membrane depolarisation evokes further neurotransmitter release. Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity is well documented in neurons and oligodendrocytes but drugs targeting glutamate excitotoxicity have failed clinically which may be due to their inability to protect astrocytes. Astrocytes make up ~50% of the brain volume and express high levels of P2 adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-receptors which have excitotoxic potential, suggesting that glutamate and ATP may mediate parallel excitotoxic cascades in neurons and astrocytes, respectively. Mono-cultures of astrocytes expressed an array of P2X and P2Y receptors can produce large rises in [Ca2+]i; mono-cultured neurons showed lower levels of functional P2 receptors. Using high-density 1:1 neuron:astrocyte co-cultures, ischemia (modelled as oxygen-glucose deprivation: OGD) evoked a rise in extracellular ATP, while P2 blockers were highly protective of both cell types. GluR blockers were only protective of neurons. Neither astrocyte nor neuronal mono-cultures showed significant ATP release during OGD, showing that cell type interactions are required for ischemic release. P2 blockers were also protective in normal-density co-cultures, while low doses of combined P2/GluR blockers where highly protective. These results highlight the potential of combined P2/GluR block for protection of neurons and glia. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommentary The Special Case of Human Astrocytes
Neuroglia 2018, 1(1), 21-29; https://doi.org/10.3390/neuroglia1010004
Received: 19 February 2018 / Accepted: 19 February 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1145 | PDF Full-text (30119 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this first issue of Neuroglia, it is highly appropriate that Professor Jorge A. Colombo at the Unit of Applied Neurobiology (UNA, CEMIC-CONICET) in Buenos Aires, Argentina, writes a perspective of idiosyncrasies of astrocytes in the human brain. Much of his work
[...] Read more.
In this first issue of Neuroglia, it is highly appropriate that Professor Jorge A. Colombo at the Unit of Applied Neurobiology (UNA, CEMIC-CONICET) in Buenos Aires, Argentina, writes a perspective of idiosyncrasies of astrocytes in the human brain. Much of his work has been focused on the special case of interlaminar astrocytes, so-named because of their long straight processes that traverse the layers of the human cerebral cortex. Notably, interlaminar astrocytes are primate-specific and their evolutionary development is directly related to that of the columnar organization of the cerebral cortex in higher primates. The human brain also contains varicose projection astrocytes or polarized astrocytes which are absent in lower animals. In addition, classical protoplasmic astrocytes dwelling in the brains of humans are ≈15-times larger and immensely more complex than their rodent counterparts. Human astrocytes retain their peculiar morphology even after grafting into rodent brains; that is, they replace the host astrocytes and confer certain cognitive advantages into so-called ‘humanised’ chimeric mice. Recently, a number of innovative studies have highlighted the major differences between human and rodent astrocytes. Nonetheless, these differences are not widely recognized, and we hope that Jorge Colombo’s Perspective and our associated Commentary will help stimulate appreciation of human astrocytes by neuroscientists and glial cell biologists alike. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessPerspective Interlaminar Glia and Other Glial Themes Revisited: Pending Answers Following Three Decades of Glial Research
Neuroglia 2018, 1(1), 7-20; https://doi.org/10.3390/neuroglia1010003
Received: 23 January 2018 / Revised: 20 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 694 | PDF Full-text (6038 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review aims to highlight the various significant matters in glial research stemming from personal work by the author and associates at the Unit of Applied Neurobiology (UNA, CEMIC-CONICET), and some of the pending questions. A reassessment and further comments on interlaminar astrocytes—an
[...] Read more.
This review aims to highlight the various significant matters in glial research stemming from personal work by the author and associates at the Unit of Applied Neurobiology (UNA, CEMIC-CONICET), and some of the pending questions. A reassessment and further comments on interlaminar astrocytes—an astroglial cell type that is specific to humans and other non-human primates, and is not found in rodents, is presented. Tentative hypothesis regarding their function and future possible research lines that could contribute to further the analysis of their development and possible role(s), are suggested. The possibility that they function as a separate entity from the “territorial” astrocytes, is also considered. In addition, the potential significance of our observations on interspecies differences in in vitro glial cell dye coupling, on glial diffusible factors affecting the induction of this glial phenotype, and on their interference with the cellular toxic effects of cerebrospinal fluid obtained from l-DOPA treated patients with Parkinson´s disease, is also considered. The major differences oberved in the cerebral cortex glial layout between human and rodents—the main model for studying glial function and pathology—calls for a careful assessment of known and potential species differences in all aspects of glial cell biology. This is essential to provide a better understanding of the organization and function of human and non-human primate brain, and of the neurobiological basis of their behavior. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial Remembering Ben Barres
Neuroglia 2018, 1(1), 4-6; https://doi.org/10.3390/neuroglia1010002
Received: 6 January 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2018 / Published: 11 January 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 963 | PDF Full-text (430 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ben Barres, who was at the heart of glial cell physiology for over 30 years, died aged 63 on December 27, 2017.[...] Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessEditorial Neuroglia: A New Open-Access Journal Publishing All Aspects of Glial Research
Neuroglia 2018, 1(1), 1-3; https://doi.org/10.3390/neuroglia1010001
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 4 December 2017 / Accepted: 5 December 2017 / Published: 15 December 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1512 | PDF Full-text (172 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Today, we announce the new journal Neuroglia, which we see as an inclusive and innovative open-access forum for publishing all aspects of glial research.[...] Full article
Back to Top