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Plasma, Volume 1, Issue 2 (December 2018)

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Open AccessReview Plasma Farming: Non-Thermal Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Technology for Improving the Growth of Soybean Sprouts and Chickens
Plasma 2018, 1(2), 285-296; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma1020025
Received: 17 October 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 11 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
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Abstract
Non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma is an innovative and emerging field combining plasma physics, life science and clinical medicine for a wide-range of biological applications. Plasma techniques are applied in treating surfaces, materials or devices to realize specific qualities for subsequent special [...] Read more.
Non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma is an innovative and emerging field combining plasma physics, life science and clinical medicine for a wide-range of biological applications. Plasma techniques are applied in treating surfaces, materials or devices to realize specific qualities for subsequent special medical applications, plant seeds to improve the production and quality of crops, and living cells or tissues to realize therapeutic effects. Several studies that are summarized within this review show that non-thermal DBD plasma technique has potential biological applications in soybean sprout growth, chicken embryonic development and postnatal growth rate, and even male chicken reproductive capacity. The current developments in the non-thermal DBD plasma technique may be beneficial to improve plant and poultry productivity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Inverted Magnetron Operating in HiPIMS Mode
Plasma 2018, 1(2), 277-284; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma1020024
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 17 November 2018 / Accepted: 26 November 2018 / Published: 27 November 2018
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Abstract
An ionized physical vapor deposition technique for thin ferromagnetic films is proposed. The technique is based on high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) with positive discharge polarity. A gapped-target was employed as the cathode of the magnetron. By applying positive HiPIMS pulses to [...] Read more.
An ionized physical vapor deposition technique for thin ferromagnetic films is proposed. The technique is based on high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) with positive discharge polarity. A gapped-target was employed as the cathode of the magnetron. By applying positive HiPIMS pulses to the anode, sputtered particles inside the magnetron source were ionized and extracted through the gap. Using a discharge current with a peak of about 13 A, an ion flux in the order of 1021 m−2s−1 was obtained at a distance of 45 mm from the magnetron. In addition, deposition rates of up to 1.1 Å/s for nickel films were achieved using a 30 Hz repetition rate and 300 µs pulse width. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Developments in Pulsed Low-Temperature Plasmas)
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Open AccessArticle Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment Modulates Human Monocytes/Macrophages Responsiveness
Plasma 2018, 1(2), 261-276; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma1020023
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 19 October 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018 / Published: 29 October 2018
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Abstract
Monocytes are involved in innate immune surveillance, establishment and resolution on inflammation, and can polarize versus M1 (pro-inflammatory) or M2 (anti-inflammatory) macrophages. The possibility to control and drive immune cells activity through plasma stimulation is therefore attractive. We focused on the effects induced [...] Read more.
Monocytes are involved in innate immune surveillance, establishment and resolution on inflammation, and can polarize versus M1 (pro-inflammatory) or M2 (anti-inflammatory) macrophages. The possibility to control and drive immune cells activity through plasma stimulation is therefore attractive. We focused on the effects induced by cold-atmospheric plasma on human primary monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages. Monocytes resulted more susceptible than monocyte-derived macrophages to the plasma treatment as demonstrated by the increase in reactive oxygen (ROS) production and reduction of viability. Macrophages instead were not induced to produce ROS and presented a stable viability. Analysis of macrophage markers demonstrated a time-dependent decrease of the M1 population and a correspondent increase of M2 monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). These findings suggest that plasma treatment may drive macrophage polarization towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Medicine)
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Open AccessEditorial Special Issue on Plasma Medicine
Plasma 2018, 1(2), 259-260; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma1020022
Received: 2 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
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(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma Medicine)
Open AccessArticle Implicit Temporal Discretization and Exact Energy Conservation for Particle Methods Applied to the Poisson–Boltzmann Equation
Plasma 2018, 1(2), 242-258; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma1020021
Received: 14 September 2018 / Revised: 4 October 2018 / Accepted: 5 October 2018 / Published: 9 October 2018
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Abstract
We report on a new multiscale method approach for the study of systems with wide separation of short-range forces acting on short time scales and long-range forces acting on much slower scales. We consider the case of the Poisson–Boltzmann equation that describes the [...] Read more.
We report on a new multiscale method approach for the study of systems with wide separation of short-range forces acting on short time scales and long-range forces acting on much slower scales. We consider the case of the Poisson–Boltzmann equation that describes the long-range forces using the Boltzmann formula (i.e., we assume the medium to be in quasi local thermal equilibrium). We develop a new approach where fields and particle information (mediated by the equations for their moments) are solved self-consistently. The new approach is implicit and numerically stable, providing exact energy conservation. We test different implementations that all lead to exact energy conservation. The new method requires the solution of a large set of non-linear equations. We consider three solution strategies: Jacobian Free Newton Krylov, an alternative, called field hiding which is based on hiding part of the residual calculation and replacing them with direct solutions and a Direct Newton Schwarz solver that considers a simplified, single, particle-based Jacobian. The field hiding strategy proves to be the most efficient approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiscale Methods in Plasma Physics)
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Open AccessArticle Temperature and Lifetime Measurements in the SSX Wind Tunnel
Plasma 2018, 1(2), 229-241; https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma1020020
Received: 28 August 2018 / Revised: 26 September 2018 / Accepted: 3 October 2018 / Published: 8 October 2018
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Abstract
We describe ion and electron temperature measurements in the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment (SSX) MHD wind tunnel with the goal of understanding limitations on the lifetime of our Taylor-state plasma. A simple model based on the equilibrium eigenvalue and Spitzer resistivity predicted the lifetime [...] Read more.
We describe ion and electron temperature measurements in the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment (SSX) MHD wind tunnel with the goal of understanding limitations on the lifetime of our Taylor-state plasma. A simple model based on the equilibrium eigenvalue and Spitzer resistivity predicted the lifetime satisfactorily during the first phase of the plasma evolution. We measured an average T e along a chord by taking the ratio of the C I I I 97.7 nm to C I V 155 nm line intensities using a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) monochromator. We also recorded local measurements of T e and n e using a double Langmuir probe in order to inform our interpretation of the VUV data. Our results indicated that the plasma decayed inductively during a large part of the evolution. Ion Doppler spectroscopy measurements suggested that ions cooled more slowly than would be expected from thermal equilibration with the electrons, which maintained a constant temperature throughout the lifetime of the plasma. Full article
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