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Advances in Respiratory Medicine is published by MDPI from Volume 90 Issue 4 (2022). Previous articles were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence, and they are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Via Medica.

Adv. Respir. Med., Volume 83, Issue 5 (September 2015) – 12 articles , Pages 341-412

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133 KiB  
Editorial
Cooperation between Polish and French Pneumonologists
by Tadeusz M. Zielonka and Szczepan Cofta
Adv. Respir. Med. 2015, 83(5), 409-412; https://doi.org/10.5603/PiAP.2015.0066 - 8 Sep 2015
Viewed by 278
Abstract
A conference jointly organised by Polish and French pneumonologists was held for the eighth time [...] Full article
188 KiB  
Review
The Etiology of Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in People with Diabetes
by Renata Barbara Klekotka, Elżbieta Mizgała and Wojciech Król
Adv. Respir. Med. 2015, 83(5), 401-408; https://doi.org/10.5603/PiAP.2015.0065 - 8 Sep 2015
Cited by 77 | Viewed by 1359
Abstract
Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are likely to develop many types of infections, which affect the transport of glucose into tissues. Diabetes increases the susceptibility to different kinds of respiratory infections, is often identified as an independent risk factor for developing lower respiratory [...] Read more.
Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are likely to develop many types of infections, which affect the transport of glucose into tissues. Diabetes increases the susceptibility to different kinds of respiratory infections, is often identified as an independent risk factor for developing lower respiratory tract infections. Pulmonary infections caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus, gram-negative bacteria and fungi may occur with an increased frequency, whereas infections due to Streptococcus pneumonia or influenza virus may be associated with increased morbidity and mortality. During lung infection, there are changes in the local and ciliary epithelial lining. Increased susceptibility to pneumococcal infection by people with diabetes is the result of reduced defense capability of antibodies to protein antigens. The relationship between diabetes and pulmonary tuberculosis is well known, and the incidence of tuberculosis in diabetic individuals is 4−5 times greater than among the non-diabetic population. It is thought that malfunction of monocytes in patients with diabetes may contribute to the increased susceptibility to tuberculosis and/or a worse prognosis. Hospitalization of patients with diabetes due to influenza virus or flu-like infections is up to 6 times more likely to occur compared to healthy individuals, also diabetic patients are more likely to be hospitalized due to infection complications. Immunization with influenza and anti-pneumococcal vaccines is recommended to reduce hospitalizations, deaths, and medical expenses. Diabetes, especially the uncontrolled one, predisposes to fungal infection, the most common candidiasis and mucormycosis. Full article
181 KiB  
Review
Problems of Patients with Cystic Fibrosis during Transition to Adulthood
by Violetta Opoka-Winiarska, Szczepan Cofta, Henryk Mazurek and Jerzy Kozielski
Adv. Respir. Med. 2015, 83(5), 394-400; https://doi.org/10.5603/PiAP.2015.0064 - 8 Sep 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 343
Abstract
The proper care of cystic fibrosis patients extends over their lifetime. More than half of the children with the disease die before adulthood. An important element in the patient’s care is a time of transition from a paediatric to the care of an [...] Read more.
The proper care of cystic fibrosis patients extends over their lifetime. More than half of the children with the disease die before adulthood. An important element in the patient’s care is a time of transition from a paediatric to the care of an internist and the patient’s acceptance of this necessity. Transition from paediatric care to an internist should be adequately prepared. It is not only a question of transfer of medical records, but also careful preparation of patients for such transition. The patients expect not only continuity of care but also the Introduction to the management with the disease. The creation of a base for specialist hospital treatment for exacerbation of the disease at the adulthood is an important element in the care of these patients. The problem has been solved in the children group, but is still waiting for solution in adults with cystic fibrosis. It has been proven that care in the centres carried out by a specialized team ensures longer life and better quality of life of these patients. The paper is an overview of these two important elements of care of adults with cystic fibrosis. Full article
629 KiB  
Case Report
“Luck’s Always to Blame”: Silent Wounds of a Penetrating Gunshot Trauma Sustained 20 Years Ago
by Ioannis Tomos, Effrosyni D. Manali, Stylianos Argentos, Thomas Raptakis and Spyros A. Papiris
Adv. Respir. Med. 2015, 83(5), 392-393; https://doi.org/10.5603/PiAP.2015.0063 - 8 Sep 2015
Viewed by 296
Abstract
Gunshot tracheal injuries represent life-threatening events and usually necessitate emergent surgical intervention. We report a case of an exceptional finding of a patient with retained ballistic fragments in the soft tissues of the thorax, proximal to the right subclavian artery and the trachea, [...] Read more.
Gunshot tracheal injuries represent life-threatening events and usually necessitate emergent surgical intervention. We report a case of an exceptional finding of a patient with retained ballistic fragments in the soft tissues of the thorax, proximal to the right subclavian artery and the trachea, carrying silently his wounds for two decades without any medical or surgical intervention. The bullet pellet on the upper part of the trachea seen accidentally in the chest computed tomography, was also found during bronchoscopy. In short “luck’s always to blame”. Full article
1375 KiB  
Case Report
Middle Lobe Syndrome: An Extraordinary Presentation of Endobronchial Tuberculosis
by Tinu Garg, Kamal Gera and Ashok Shah
Adv. Respir. Med. 2015, 83(5), 387-391; https://doi.org/10.5603/PiAP.2015.0062 - 8 Sep 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 383
Abstract
Tuberculous infection of the tracheobronchial tree, termed as endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB), is more common in young adults and females. This clinical entity is poorly understood and the diagnosis is frequently delayed as sputum smears are often negative for acid fast bacilli and the [...] Read more.
Tuberculous infection of the tracheobronchial tree, termed as endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB), is more common in young adults and females. This clinical entity is poorly understood and the diagnosis is frequently delayed as sputum smears are often negative for acid fast bacilli and the chest radiograph can be normal, resulting in diagnostic confusion. Bronchoscopy continues to play a key role in its diagnosis. Though atelectasis is not uncommon in these patients, EBTB presenting as a middle lobe syndrome (MLS) has rarely been documented. MLS refers to chronic or recurrent collapse of the right middle lobe and has a myriad of causes. The pathogenesis of this entity too is not fully established. We report this exceptional clinical manifestation in a 19-year-old male, who presented for evaluation of respiratory symptoms for 6 months along with constitutional complaints. Imaging suggested the presence of MLS and bronchoscopy established the diagnosis of endobronchial tuberculosis. GeneXpert evaluation of bronchial aspirate detected Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Histopathology confirmed the presence of granulomatous lesions. Subsequently, the cultures of bronchial aspirate and post-bronchoscopy sputum grew M. tuberculosis. Appropriate therapy with anti-tuberculosis drugs resulted in a remarkable symptomatic and radiological improvement. EBTB presenting as a MLS is a distinct rarity. Full article
353 KiB  
Case Report
Chronic Pneumonia Due to Klebsiella oxytoca Mimicking Pulmonary Tuberculosis
by Kamal Gera, Rahul Roshan, Mandira Varma-Basil and Ashok Shah
Adv. Respir. Med. 2015, 83(5), 383-386; https://doi.org/10.5603/PiAP.2015.0061 - 8 Sep 2015
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 695
Abstract
Klebsiella species infrequently cause acute community acquired pneumonia (CAP). The chronic form of the disease caused by K. pneumoniae (Friedlander’s bacillus) was occasionally seen in the pre-antibiotic era. K. oxytoca is a singularly uncommon cause of CAP. The chronic form of the disease [...] Read more.
Klebsiella species infrequently cause acute community acquired pneumonia (CAP). The chronic form of the disease caused by K. pneumoniae (Friedlander’s bacillus) was occasionally seen in the pre-antibiotic era. K. oxytoca is a singularly uncommon cause of CAP. The chronic form of the disease caused by K. oxytoca has been documented only once before. A 50-year-old immunocompetent male smoker presented with haemoptysis for 12 months. Imaging demonstrated a cavitary lesion in the right upper lobe with emphysematous changes. Sputum stains and cultures for Mycobacterium tuberculosis were negative. However, three sputum samples for aerobic culture as well as bronchial aspirate cultured pure growth of K. oxytoca. A diagnosis of chronic pneumonia due to K. oxytoca was established and with appropriate therapy, the patient was largely asymptomatic. The remarkable clinical and radiological similarity to pulmonary tuberculosis can result in patients with chronic Klebsiella pneumonia erroneously receiving anti-tuberculous therapy. Full article
647 KiB  
Case Report
Interstitial Lung Disease Associated with Docetaxel in a Patient Treated for Breast Cancer—A Case Report
by Monika Pankowska-Supryn, Monika Załęska, Barbara Roszkowska-Śliż and Kazimierz Roszkowski-Śliż
Adv. Respir. Med. 2015, 83(5), 378-382; https://doi.org/10.5603/PiAP.2015.0060 - 8 Sep 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 337
Abstract
Docetaxel is a semisynthetic cytostatic drug that belongs to the family of taxoids. Docetaxel inhibits normal interphase and mitotic cellular function, causing cell death. Docetaxel is indicated for the treatment of breast, lung and prostate cancers, head and neck cancer and gastric adenocarcinoma. [...] Read more.
Docetaxel is a semisynthetic cytostatic drug that belongs to the family of taxoids. Docetaxel inhibits normal interphase and mitotic cellular function, causing cell death. Docetaxel is indicated for the treatment of breast, lung and prostate cancers, head and neck cancer and gastric adenocarcinoma. Interstitial pneumonitis is an uncommon side effect of docetaxel. We report a case of docetaxel induced interstitial lung disease (ILD) in a patient with breast cancer. Full article
280 KiB  
Article
Usage and Usability of One Dry Powder Inhaler Compared to Other Inhalers at Therapy Start: An Open, Non-interventional Observational Study in Poland and Germany
by Piotr Hantulik, Karola Wittig, Yvonne Henschel, Joachim Ochse, Mikko Vahteristo and Paula Rytila
Adv. Respir. Med. 2015, 83(5), 365-377; https://doi.org/10.5603/PiAP.2015.0059 - 8 Sep 2015
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 531
Abstract
Introduction: Inhalation is the preferred route of drug administration for patients with asthma or COPD. It is generally predicted that there is a high error rate in inhaler usage, especially at the therapy start. The primary objective of this study was the [...] Read more.
Introduction: Inhalation is the preferred route of drug administration for patients with asthma or COPD. It is generally predicted that there is a high error rate in inhaler usage, especially at the therapy start. The primary objective of this study was the validation of a questionnaire that can be used for assessing a successful inhalation technique, patient satisfaction as well as the compliance in daily practice.The secondary objective was to examine the “real-life” usage of one inhalation device in comparison with other devices at the start of the therapy. Materials and Methods: This open, multi centre and non-interventional study was designed to examine usage and usability of dry powder inhaler Easyhaler® (EH) (Orion Pharma, Finland) and other inhalers assessed by the physicians as well as by the patients. Inclusion criteria for patients were a physician-diagnosis of COPD or asthma or children with asthmatic disease, therapy start with an inhalation device and no or only few experiences with inhaler usage (inhaler usage for not more than 3 months). Each physician enrolled an equal number of patients in each group. Results: 263 adult/adolescent patients with asthma and 115 with COPD as well as 164 children with asthmatic disease were enrolled. 49.4% of the adult/adolescent patients with asthma used an EH and 50.6% other inhalers. In the case of COPD, 47.8% were treated with an EH and 52.2% used other inhalation devices. Finally, 50.6% of the children with asthmatic disease used an EH and 49.4% were treated with other inhalers. Inhaler usage, patient satisfaction, compliance and patients assessments of usability were better when the patients used an EH. Inconvenient features were mainly documented for other inhalers. The analysis of Cronbachs alpha clearly showed the consistency of the received data from all patients. In addition, there was a large association between the assessment of the inhaler usage and the general assessment of the used inhaler in all patient groups. Conclusion: The results of this study show that investigators found EH easy to teach, the patients found it easy to use and their satisfaction with the device was high in comparison to other inhalation devices. Thus EH can be matched to many patients already at the therapy start. In addition, the high consistency of the received data and large association of the assessment of the inhaler usage and the general assessment of the inhaler indicate that the used questionnaires were appropriate tools to examine usage and usability of inhaler devices in adult patients and children. Full article
202 KiB  
Article
Asthma Prevalence and Risk Factors Analysis in Tricity University Students’ Group
by Jan Romantowski, Marika Gawinowska, Paulina Cyrny, Ewa Jassem, Marta Chełmińska and Marek Niedoszytko
Adv. Respir. Med. 2015, 83(5), 359-364; https://doi.org/10.5603/PiAP.2015.0058 - 8 Sep 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 390
Abstract
Introduction: Asthma is the most prevalent chronic disease in a young and middle age population worldwide. It is also one of the main reasons for the lost working days and lost days at school. Several epidemiological surveys have evidenced an increase in [...] Read more.
Introduction: Asthma is the most prevalent chronic disease in a young and middle age population worldwide. It is also one of the main reasons for the lost working days and lost days at school. Several epidemiological surveys have evidenced an increase in the prevalence of asthma in Poland. This trend is further evident in urban areas such as Tricity (Gdańsk, Sopot, Gdynia). The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of the disease as well as the risk factors affecting the university student population. Materials and Methods: Two surveys were distributed electronically to students of the four major universities in Tricity. The first survey contained nine questions concerning asthma diagnoses and symptoms. The second survey, which evaluated the occurrence of identified risk factors, was sent to students who answered the first survey. Asthmatics also received an Asthma Control Test (ACT). The results were analyzed using the Statistica 10 software. Study group consisted of 1380 students: 1031 (75%) women and 349 (25%) men; the average age was 22.2. Results: Asthma was diagnosed in 138 students (9.6%), additionally 76 students (5.5%) reported asthmatic symptoms; however, these students had no previous diagnoses. Asthma tended to occur more frequently in students living in poorly maintained houses (19%) (p = 0.06), in contrast to those living in a normal environment (10%). According to their ACTs, 81% of diagnosed patients reported that their asthma was well-controlled. Conclusions: Asthma is becoming an important issue for Tricity students. Educational activities aimed at raising university students’ awareness regarding asthma treatment and control should be implemented. Full article
168 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Quality of Life in Subjects with a History of Severe Anaphylactic Reaction to the Hymenoptera Venom
by Natalia Nowak, Stanisława Bazan-Socha, Grażyna Pulka, Karolina Pełka and Paulina Latra
Adv. Respir. Med. 2015, 83(5), 352-358; https://doi.org/10.5603/PiAP.2015.0057 - 8 Sep 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 368
Abstract
Introduction: Sensitization to the Hymenoptera venom is one of the main causes of anaphylaxis in Poland. Venom immunotherapy is the only effective treatment in such cases. Comprehensive patient care includes also education. The aim of our study was to assess the state [...] Read more.
Introduction: Sensitization to the Hymenoptera venom is one of the main causes of anaphylaxis in Poland. Venom immunotherapy is the only effective treatment in such cases. Comprehensive patient care includes also education. The aim of our study was to assess the state of knowledge and to evaluate the quality of life and the anxiety level in patients allergic to the Hymenoptera venom after anaphylactic reaction. Materials and Methods: The survey was carried out in the period of the insects flight in 61 adult subjects (35 wasp and 26 bee allergic), using a validated Vespid Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire (VQLQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and subjective assessment of anxiety level. The majority of respondents received venom immunotherapy. Results: Sensitized to the wasp venom had significantly impaired quality of life (VQLQ score) as compared to the bee venom allergic (p = 0.014). The intensity of anxiety decreased with the duration of immunotherapy (p = 0.01). The majority of subjects knew how to recognize and treat anaphylaxis, but only 8% employed an identification card and about 50% implemented rules of the pre-exposition prophylaxis. Conclusions: History of a severe anaphylaxis to the Hymenoptera venom affected the quality of life. Venom immunotherapy reduced anxiety. We hope that presented surveys and their results might be useful in qualifying for immunotherapy in clinically uncertain cases. Full article
152 KiB  
Article
Thrombocytopenia as a Marker of Outcome in Patients with Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
by Mohammad Hossein Rahimi-Rad, Sheida Soltani, Masome Rabieepour and Shagayegh Rahimirad
Adv. Respir. Med. 2015, 83(5), 348-351; https://doi.org/10.5603/PiAP.2015.0056 - 8 Sep 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 413
Abstract
Introduction: Thrombocytopenia (TP) is associated with poor outcome in patients who are critically ill with pneumonia, burns, and H1N1 influenza. To our knowledge, no similar study in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) has been conducted to date. [...] Read more.
Introduction: Thrombocytopenia (TP) is associated with poor outcome in patients who are critically ill with pneumonia, burns, and H1N1 influenza. To our knowledge, no similar study in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) has been conducted to date. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of platelet count on the outcome of patients with AECOPD. Materials and Methods: Patients admitted to our teaching hospital for AECOPD were divided into two cohorts, those with and without TP. The outcome of all patients was followed. Results: Of the 200 patients with AECOPD, 55 (27.5%) had TP. Of these, 14 (25.5%) died in the hospital, whereas of the 145 non-TP patents, 11 (7.5%) died (p-value = 0.001). There was a significantly higher transfer rate to the ICU and mechanical ventilation in TP patients. The mean platelet count was significantly lower in patients who died than those who were discharged (161,672 vs. 203,005 cell/μL; p-value = 0.017). There was negative correlation between duration of hospitalization and platelet count. Conclusion: TP was associated with poor outcome in AECOPD. TP could be considered as a marker for the assessment of inflammation and prognosis in AECOPD patients based on its cost-effective features. Full article
155 KiB  
Article
Importance of Education in Bronchial Asthma Treatment—Gender Differences
by Beata Jankowska-Polańska, Justyna Pleśniak, Mariola Seń, Izabella Uchmanowicz and Joanna Rosińczuk
Adv. Respir. Med. 2015, 83(5), 341-347; https://doi.org/10.5603/PiAP.2015.0055 - 8 Sep 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 459
Abstract
Introduction: Despite significant progress in understanding mechanisms and effective treatment there are still therapeutic failures in patients treated for bronchial asthma. Education is vital in the therapeutic process. It improves the control of the disease at the individual level by influencing the [...] Read more.
Introduction: Despite significant progress in understanding mechanisms and effective treatment there are still therapeutic failures in patients treated for bronchial asthma. Education is vital in the therapeutic process. It improves the control of the disease at the individual level by influencing the adherence and compliance. Materials and Methods: The study included 100 patients suffering from bronchial asthma and treated according to GINA 2002 guidelines in Allergy Clinic. Asthma control test (ACT), analysis of patients’ medical documentation and a self-constructed questionnaire concerning health promotion and education were used in the study. Aim of this work was to assess differences in the influence of education on results of bronchial asthma control between sexes. Results: Average duration of asthma was similar in women and men (13.0 ± 11.16 vs.12.7 ± 9.74 years). Weaker asthma control was found in women (ACT 17.7 vs. 20.4), as well as lower FEV1 values (80−50% of predicted value in 60.3% of women vs. 43.25 of men). In women an analysis of correlation concerning patients’ knowledge and conducted health education with asthma control revealed a statistically significant positive correlation of knowledge acquired from the allergologist with asthma control, information about proceeding in acute attack, whereas negative correlation with asthma control with knowledge passed on by family doctor was found. Among the male respondents positive correlations of knowledge with asthma control within the scope of knowledge from allergologist and information concerning proceeding in asthmatic attack were found, while negative correlation with information coming from family doctor was revealed. Conclusions: Health education in patients with asthma should be conducted by a specialist in allergic diseases and well-prepared healthcare professionals. Full article
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