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Quantum Beam Sci., Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2020) – 7 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The spatially-selective lamellar orientation of polystyrene-block-poly (methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) can be achieved by the modification of underlying self-assembled monolayers (SAM), which is induced by an electron beam (EB). Using EB lithography to change the polarity of different regions of SAM controls the lamellar orientation of PS-b-PMMA. The reduction of SAM substrates plays a crucial role in the ordering. View this paper.
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Article
Accurate Simulation of Neutrons in Less Than One Minute Pt. 2: Sandman—GPU-Accelerated Adjoint Monte-Carlo Sampled Acceptance Diagrams
Quantum Beam Sci. 2020, 4(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs4020024 - 16 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1088
Abstract
A computational method in the modelling of neutron beams is described that blends neutron acceptance diagrams, GPU-based Monte-Carlo sampling, and a Bayesian approach to efficiency. The resulting code reaches orders of magnitude improvement in performance relative to existing methods. For example, data rates [...] Read more.
A computational method in the modelling of neutron beams is described that blends neutron acceptance diagrams, GPU-based Monte-Carlo sampling, and a Bayesian approach to efficiency. The resulting code reaches orders of magnitude improvement in performance relative to existing methods. For example, data rates similar to world-leading, real instruments can be achieved on a 2017 laptop, generating 10 6 neutrons per second at the sample position of a high-resolution small angle scattering instrument. The method is benchmarked, and is shown to be in agreement with previous work. Finally, the method is demonstrated on a mature instrument design, where a sub-second turnaround in an interactive simulation process allows the rapid exploration of a wide range of options. This results in a doubling of the design performance, at the same time as reducing the hardware cost by 40%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Neutron Instrumentation)
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Article
Development of Hydrogen-Permselective Porous Membranes Using Radiation-Induced Graft Polymerization
Quantum Beam Sci. 2020, 4(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs4020023 - 02 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1201
Abstract
Hydrogen-permselective membranes were developed using a radiation-induced grafting method. Styrene (St) and acrylic acid (AAc) monomers were introduced into porous polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes to obtain St- and AAc-grafted PVDF membranes with grafting degrees of 82% and 92%, respectively. The porosities of the [...] Read more.
Hydrogen-permselective membranes were developed using a radiation-induced grafting method. Styrene (St) and acrylic acid (AAc) monomers were introduced into porous polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes to obtain St- and AAc-grafted PVDF membranes with grafting degrees of 82% and 92%, respectively. The porosities of the grafted membranes were controlled in the range 30–40% by hot-press compression at 159 °C and 4 MPa. The hydrogen permeability was found to be of the order of 10−7 mol/m2∙s∙Pa, which was higher than the permeability for water vapor and nitrogen (oxygen model). The St- and AAc-grafted membranes exhibited 9.0 and 34 times higher permeability for H2 than for H2O and N2, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Beams Applying to Innovative Industrial Materials)
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Review
Applications of Microbeams Produced by Tapered Glass Capillary Optics
Quantum Beam Sci. 2020, 4(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs4020022 - 01 Jun 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2657
Abstract
Production of ion microbeams using tapered glass capillary optics was introduced more than 10 years ago. This technique has drawn attention in terms of both its peculiar transmission features and application to ion beam analysis. The transmission mechanism based on a self-organized charge-up [...] Read more.
Production of ion microbeams using tapered glass capillary optics was introduced more than 10 years ago. This technique has drawn attention in terms of both its peculiar transmission features and application to ion beam analysis. The transmission mechanism based on a self-organized charge-up process for keV-energy ions was observed for the first time in an experiment using a multitude of nanometer-sized capillaries in a polymer foil. The same mechanism can be seen for the transmission of keV ions through a single tapered glass capillary. The transmission experiments with keV ions showed a delayed transmission, focusing effects, guiding effects, and formation of microbeams. Experiments using MeV-energy ions always aim at applications of microbeam irradiation for material analysis, surface modification, cell surgery, and so on. In this article, the applications of MeV ion microbeams, including the fabrication method of the glass capillary, are reviewed, as well as the experimental and theoretical studies for the transmission mechanisms of keV/MeV ions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Beams Applying to Innovative Industrial Materials)
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Article
Residual Stresses Induced by Surface Working and Their Improvement by Emery Paper Polishing
Quantum Beam Sci. 2020, 4(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs4020021 - 14 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1122
Abstract
In many of machine parts and structural components, materials surface would be worked. In this study, residual stresses on the surfaces were measured by X-ray diffraction method, and effects of surface working on the residual stresses were examined. In case of lathe machining [...] Read more.
In many of machine parts and structural components, materials surface would be worked. In this study, residual stresses on the surfaces were measured by X-ray diffraction method, and effects of surface working on the residual stresses were examined. In case of lathe machining of type 304 stainless steel bar, the residual stresses in circumferential directions are tensile, and those in axial directions are almost compressive. Highly tensile residual stresses in the circumferential directions were improved by emery paper polishing. 10 to 20 times of polishing changes high tensile residual stresses to compressive residual stresses. In the case of shot peening on a type 304 stainless steel plate, the compressive residual stress inside is several hundred MPa lower than that on the surface. By applying the emery paper polishing to the shot peened surface 10 or 20 times, the residual stress on the surface is improved to −700 MPa. While fatigue strength at 288 °C in the air of the shot peened material is 30 MPa higher than solution heat treated and electro-polished material, the fatigue strength of the shot peened and followed by emery paper polished material is 60 MPa higher. Thus, the emery paper polishing is simple and a very effective process for improvement of the residual stresses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Strain, Stress and Texture with Quantum Beams)
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Review
Recent Progress in Charged Polymer Chains Grafted by Radiation-Induced Graft Polymerization; Adsorption of Proteins and Immobilization of Inorganic Precipitates
Quantum Beam Sci. 2020, 4(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs4020020 - 13 Apr 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1707
Abstract
Radiation-induced graft polymerization provides industrially superior functionalization schemes by selection of existing polymer substrates and design of graft chains. In this review, by a pre-irradiation method of the radiation-induced graft polymerization and subsequent chemical modifications, charged polymer chains grafted onto various components and [...] Read more.
Radiation-induced graft polymerization provides industrially superior functionalization schemes by selection of existing polymer substrates and design of graft chains. In this review, by a pre-irradiation method of the radiation-induced graft polymerization and subsequent chemical modifications, charged polymer chains grafted onto various components and shapes of the polymer substrates are described. The charged graft chains immobilized onto a porous hollow-fiber membrane captured proteins in multilayers via multipoint binding. A membrane onto which positively charged graft chains are immobilized, i.e., an anion-exchange porous hollow-fiber membrane, was commercialized in 2011 for the removal of undesirable proteins in the purification of pharmaceuticals. On the other hand, a membrane onto which negatively charged graft chains are immobilized, i.e., a cation-exchange porous hollow-fiber membrane, exhibited a low permeation flux for pure water; however, the prepermeation of an aqueous solution of magnesium chloride through the membrane restored the permeation flux because of ionic crosslinking of graft chains with magnesium ions. The charged graft chains provide a precipitation field for inorganic compounds such as insoluble cobalt ferrocyanide. The graft chains entangle or penetrate a precipitate owing to electrostatic interactions with the surface charge on the precipitate. Braids and wound filters composed of insoluble-cobalt-ferrocyanide-impregnated fibers are used for the removal of radiocesium from contaminated water at Tokyo Electric Power Co. (TEPCO) Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Beams Applying to Innovative Industrial Materials)
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Article
Lamellar Orientation of a Block Copolymer via an Electron-Beam Induced Polarity Switch in a Nitrophenyl Self-Assembled Monolayer or Si Etching Treatments
Quantum Beam Sci. 2020, 4(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs4020019 - 27 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2274
Abstract
Directed self-assembly (DSA) was investigated on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) chemically modified by electron beam (EB) irradiation, which is composed of 6-(4-nitrophenoxy) hexane-1-thiol (NPHT). Irradiating a NPHT by EB could successfully induce the orientation and selective patterning of block copolymer domains. We clarified that [...] Read more.
Directed self-assembly (DSA) was investigated on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) chemically modified by electron beam (EB) irradiation, which is composed of 6-(4-nitrophenoxy) hexane-1-thiol (NPHT). Irradiating a NPHT by EB could successfully induce the orientation and selective patterning of block copolymer domains. We clarified that spatially-selective lamellar orientations of polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) could be achieved by a change of an underlying SAM. The change of an underlying SAM is composed of the transition of an NO2 group to an NH2 group, which is induced by EB. The modification in the polarity of different regions of the SAM with EB lithography controlled the lamellar orientation of PS-b-PMMA. The reduction of the NPHT SAM plays an important role in the orientation of block copolymer. This method might significantly simplify block copolymer DSA processes when it is compared to the conventional DSA process. By investigating the lamellae orientation with EB, it is clarified that only suitable annealing temperatures and irradiation doses lead to the vertical orientation. We also fabricated pre-patterned Si substrates by EB lithographic patterning and reactive ion etching (RIE). DSA onto such pre-patterned Si substrates was proven to be successful for subdivision of the lithographic patterns into line and space patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Beams Applying to Innovative Industrial Materials)
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Article
Residual Stress Distribution in Water Jet Peened Type 304 Stainless Steel
Quantum Beam Sci. 2020, 4(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs4020018 - 26 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1519
Abstract
In materials with a surface treatment such as shot peening, the residual stress gradient in the surface layer is severe. When measuring the residual stress distribution near the surface with a severe stress gradient by the neutron diffraction method, the gauge volume must [...] Read more.
In materials with a surface treatment such as shot peening, the residual stress gradient in the surface layer is severe. When measuring the residual stress distribution near the surface with a severe stress gradient by the neutron diffraction method, the gauge volume must be removed from the measurement sample. However, when the gauge volume deviates from the sample, a pseudo peak shift occurs and accurate stress distribution cannot be evaluated. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the pseudo peak shift in advance under the same conditions, as in the case of actual residual stress measurement, using a sample in an unstressed state. In this study, the stress distributions in the surface layer of a type 304 stainless steel plate and bar with simulated stress-corrosion cracks which were subjected to water jet peening—giving a surface layer residual stress equivalent better than that of normal shot peening—were evaluated considering the pseudo peak shift. As a result, the residual stress distributions in the surface layer were measured in good agreement with the measurement result obtained by the sequential polishing X-ray diffraction method. It was clarified that the residual stress distribution in the near surface with steep stress gradient can be evaluated by the neutron diffraction method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Strain, Stress and Texture with Quantum Beams)
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