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Review

A Review of Basic Energy Reconstruction Techniques in Liquid Xenon and Argon Detectors for Dark Matter and Neutrino Physics Using NEST

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Department of Physics, University at Albany SUNY, 1400 Washington Ave., Albany, NY 12222-0100, USA
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Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180, USA
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The College of St. Rose, Albany, NY 12203, USA
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ANDRO Computational Solutions, LLC, Rome, NY 13440, USA
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Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
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Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics Named by A.I. Alikhanov of National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute”, 117218 Moscow, Russia
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Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI), National Research Nuclear University, 115409 Moscow, Russia
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Northrop Grumman, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
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Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Carlos Escobar
Instruments 2021, 5(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments5010013
Received: 1 December 2020 / Revised: 19 February 2021 / Accepted: 5 March 2021 / Published: 18 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light Production and Detection in Noble Liquid Detectors)
Detectors based upon the noble elements, especially liquid xenon as well as liquid argon, as both single- and dual-phase types, require reconstruction of the energies of interacting particles, both in the field of direct detection of dark matter (weakly interacting massive particles WIMPs, axions, etc.) and in neutrino physics. Experimentalists, as well as theorists who reanalyze/reinterpret experimental data, have used a few different techniques over the past few decades. In this paper, we review techniques based on solely the primary scintillation channel, the ionization or secondary channel available at non-zero drift electric fields, and combined techniques that include a simple linear combination and weighted averages, with a brief discussion of the application of profile likelihood, maximum likelihood, and machine learning. Comparing results for electron recoils (beta and gamma interactions) and nuclear recoils (primarily from neutrons) from the Noble Element Simulation Technique (NEST) simulation to available data, we confirm that combining all available information generates higher-precision means, lower widths (energy resolution), and more symmetric shapes (approximately Gaussian) especially at keV-scale energies, with the symmetry even greater when thresholding is addressed. Near thresholds, bias from upward fluctuations matters. For MeV-GeV scales, if only one channel is utilized, an ionization-only-based energy scale outperforms scintillation; channel combination remains beneficial. We discuss here what major collaborations use. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy reconstruction; xenon; argon; dark matter; neutrino physics; particle detectors energy reconstruction; xenon; argon; dark matter; neutrino physics; particle detectors
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MDPI and ACS Style

Szydagis, M.; Block, G.A.; Farquhar, C.; Flesher, A.J.; Kozlova, E.S.; Levy, C.; Mangus, E.A.; Mooney, M.; Mueller, J.; Rischbieter, G.R.C.; Schwartz, A.K. A Review of Basic Energy Reconstruction Techniques in Liquid Xenon and Argon Detectors for Dark Matter and Neutrino Physics Using NEST. Instruments 2021, 5, 13. https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments5010013

AMA Style

Szydagis M, Block GA, Farquhar C, Flesher AJ, Kozlova ES, Levy C, Mangus EA, Mooney M, Mueller J, Rischbieter GRC, Schwartz AK. A Review of Basic Energy Reconstruction Techniques in Liquid Xenon and Argon Detectors for Dark Matter and Neutrino Physics Using NEST. Instruments. 2021; 5(1):13. https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments5010013

Chicago/Turabian Style

Szydagis, Matthew, Grant A. Block, Collin Farquhar, Alexander J. Flesher, Ekaterina S. Kozlova, Cecilia Levy, Emily A. Mangus, Michael Mooney, Justin Mueller, Gregory R.C. Rischbieter, and Andrew K. Schwartz 2021. "A Review of Basic Energy Reconstruction Techniques in Liquid Xenon and Argon Detectors for Dark Matter and Neutrino Physics Using NEST" Instruments 5, no. 1: 13. https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments5010013

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