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Instruments, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2020) – 8 articles

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Superconducting Accelerator Magnets Based on High-Temperature Superconducting Bi-2212 Round Wires
Instruments 2020, 4(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments4020017 - 25 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1026
Abstract
Superconducting magnets are an invaluable tool for scientific discovery, energy research, and medical diagnosis. To date, virtually all superconducting magnets have been made from two Nb-based low-temperature superconductors (Nb-Ti with a superconducting transition temperature Tc of 9.2 K and Nb3Sn [...] Read more.
Superconducting magnets are an invaluable tool for scientific discovery, energy research, and medical diagnosis. To date, virtually all superconducting magnets have been made from two Nb-based low-temperature superconductors (Nb-Ti with a superconducting transition temperature Tc of 9.2 K and Nb3Sn with a Tc of 18.3 K). The 8.33 T Nb-Ti accelerator dipole magnets of the large hadron collider (LHC) at CERN enabled the discovery of the Higgs Boson and the ongoing search for physics beyond the standard model of high energy physics. The 12 T class Nb3Sn magnets are key to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Tokamak and to the high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC that aims to increase the luminosity by a factor of 5–10. In this paper, we discuss opportunities with a high-temperature superconducting material Bi-2212 with a Tc of 80–92 K for building more powerful magnets for high energy circular colliders. The development of a superconducting accelerator magnet could not succeed without a parallel development of a high performance conductor. We will review triumphs of developing Bi-2212 round wires into a magnet grade conductor and technologies that enable them. Then, we will discuss the challenges associated with constructing a high-field accelerator magnet using Bi-2212 wires, especially those dipoles of 15–20 T class with a significant value for future physics colliders, potential technology paths forward, and progress made so far with subscale magnet development based on racetrack coils and a canted-cosine-theta magnet design that uniquely addresses the mechanical weaknesses of Bi-2212 cables. Additionally, a roadmap being implemented by the US Magnet Development Program for demonstrating high-field Bi-2212 accelerator dipole technologies is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Superconductivity for Particle Accelerator)
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Open AccessReview
Electroluminescence and Electron Avalanching in Two-Phase Detectors
Instruments 2020, 4(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments4020016 - 18 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 992
Abstract
Electroluminescence and electron avalanching are the physical effects used in two-phase argon and xenon detectors for dark matter searches and neutrino detection, to amplify the primary ionization signal directly in cryogenic noble-gas media. We review the concepts of such light and charge signal [...] Read more.
Electroluminescence and electron avalanching are the physical effects used in two-phase argon and xenon detectors for dark matter searches and neutrino detection, to amplify the primary ionization signal directly in cryogenic noble-gas media. We review the concepts of such light and charge signal amplification, including a combination thereof, both in the gas and in the liquid phase. Puzzling aspects of the physics of electroluminescence and electron avalanching in two-phase detectors are explained, and detection techniques based on these effects are described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Light Production and Detection in Noble Liquid Detectors)
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Open AccessArticle
A Software Improvement Technique for Platinum Resistance Thermometers
Instruments 2020, 4(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments4020015 - 27 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 625
Abstract
Temperature measurement is essential in industries. The advantages of resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) are high sensitivity, repeatability, and long-term stability. The measurement performance of this thermometer is of concern. The connection between RTDs and a novel microprocessor system provides a new method to [...] Read more.
Temperature measurement is essential in industries. The advantages of resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) are high sensitivity, repeatability, and long-term stability. The measurement performance of this thermometer is of concern. The connection between RTDs and a novel microprocessor system provides a new method to improve the performance of RTDs. In this study, the adequate piecewise sections and the order of polynomial calibration equations were evaluated. Systematic errors were found when the relationship between temperature and resistance for PT-1000 data was expressed using the inverse Callendar-Van Dusen equation. The accuracy of these calibration equations can be improved significantly with two piecewise equations in different temperature ranges. Two datasets of the resistance of PT-1000 sensors in the range from 0 °C to 50 °C were measured. The first dataset was used to establish adequate calibration equations with regression analysis. In the second dataset, the prediction temperatures were calculated by these previously established calibration equations. The difference between prediction temperatures and the standard temperature was used as a criterion to evaluate the prediction performance. The accuracy and precision of PT-1000 sensors could be improved significantly with adequate calibration equations. The accuracy and precision were 0.027 °C and 0.126 °C, respectively. The technique developed in this study could be used for other RTD sensors and/or different temperature ranges. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fast-Gated 16 × 1 SPAD Array for Non-Line-of-Sight Imaging Applications
Instruments 2020, 4(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments4020014 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 1143
Abstract
In this paper we present a novel single-photon detector specifically designed for Non-Line-Of-Sight (NLOS) imaging applications within the framework of the DARPA REVEAL program. The instrument is based on a linear 16 × 1 Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) Single-Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) array operated [...] Read more.
In this paper we present a novel single-photon detector specifically designed for Non-Line-Of-Sight (NLOS) imaging applications within the framework of the DARPA REVEAL program. The instrument is based on a linear 16 × 1 Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) Single-Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) array operated in fast-gated mode by a novel fast-gating Active Quenching Circuit (AQC) array, which enables the detectors with sub-ns transitions thanks to a SPAD-dummy approach. The detector exhibits a timing resolution better than 50 ps (Full Width at Half Maximum - FWHM) at a measurement repetition rate up to 40 MHz, and provides 16 independent outputs compatible with commercial Time-Correlated Single-Photon Counting (TCSPC) instrumentation. The instrument has been experimentally characterized and operated in preliminary NLOS imaging acquisitions where a 40 × 60 cm hidden object is successfully reconstructed by scanning over a grid of 150 × 150 positions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Single-Photon Detection Instrumentation and Applications)
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Open AccessMeeting Report
Seventh User Workshop on High-Power Lasers at the Linac Coherent Light Source
Instruments 2020, 4(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments4020013 - 16 May 2020
Viewed by 692
Abstract
We report on a seventh annual workshop in a series focused on science realized by the combination of hard X-ray free electron lasers with high power optical lasers, hosted at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in Menlo Park, CA. Members from the user [...] Read more.
We report on a seventh annual workshop in a series focused on science realized by the combination of hard X-ray free electron lasers with high power optical lasers, hosted at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in Menlo Park, CA. Members from the user community of the Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) endstation of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and other scientists met with local scientists to discuss developments at LCLS and MEC and related facilities, including experimental results and future plans. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Functional Imaging of the Ocular Fundus Using an 8-Band Retinal Multispectral Imaging System
Instruments 2020, 4(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments4020012 - 07 May 2020
Viewed by 747
Abstract
Application of functional imaging in ophthalmology requires efficient imaging techniques that can detect and quantify chromophores to visualise processes in vivo. The aim of the present study was to develop and evaluate a fast and affordable imaging system. We describe an eight-band retinal [...] Read more.
Application of functional imaging in ophthalmology requires efficient imaging techniques that can detect and quantify chromophores to visualise processes in vivo. The aim of the present study was to develop and evaluate a fast and affordable imaging system. We describe an eight-band retinal multispectral imaging (MSI) system and compare it with a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) device. Determination of blood oxygen saturation was studied as proof of principle. Reflectance of incident light is measured as 1/absorbance at different wavelengths between 440 nm and 580 nm. Both devices have incorporated optical bandpass filters in a mydriatic fundus camera. The MSI system scans the retina at eight pre-defined wavelengths specific for the spectrum of haemoglobin. The HSI system acquires a full scan from 480 to 720 nm in 5 nm steps. A simple assessment of the ratio between the absorbance peaks of oxygenated haemoglobin (HbO2) and reduced haemoglobin (HbR) was not suitable for generating validated oxygenation maps of the retina. However, a correction algorithm that compares the measured reflectance with reflectance spectra of fully oxygenated and fully deoxygenated blood allowed our MSI setup to estimate relative oxygen saturation at higher levels, but underestimated relative oxygen saturation at lower levels. The MSI device generated better quality images than the HSI device. It allows customisation with filter sets optimised for other chromophores of interest, and augmented with extrinsic contrast imaging agents, it has the potential for a wider range of ophthalmic molecular imaging applications. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
TomoPress—In Situ Synchrotron-Based Microtomography under Axial Load
Instruments 2020, 4(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments4020011 - 22 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 927
Abstract
Computed tomography (CT) with hard X-rays is a mature technique that is in regular use to depict the interior of opaque specimens with spatial resolutions up to the micrometre range (microtomography or µCT). Short acquisition times and sophisticated contrast modes are accessible when [...] Read more.
Computed tomography (CT) with hard X-rays is a mature technique that is in regular use to depict the interior of opaque specimens with spatial resolutions up to the micrometre range (microtomography or µCT). Short acquisition times and sophisticated contrast modes are accessible when synchrotron light sources are combined with microtomography—SR-µCT. Both features render SR-µCT as excellent probe to study delicate samples in situ, for example under mechanical load by deploying corresponding sample environments. The so-called TomoPress is such a device available within the public user programme of tomography beamline ID19 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). It allows one to study samples under high axial load (up to 500 N) with high spatial resolution up to the micrometer range. Different gauges are installed to allow online monitoring of the applied force. Constant humidity, temperature and wetting are routinely available as well. The article shall outline basic design principles of the press as well as parameters for its utilisation in a descriptive manner. Selected examples underline the potential of the device for such diverse fields as biomedical research, life sciences and materials research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Selected Papers from Instruments’ Editorial Board Members)
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Open AccessArticle
Plasma Beam Dumps for the EuPRAXIA Facility
Instruments 2020, 4(2), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments4020010 - 05 Apr 2020
Viewed by 959
Abstract
Beam dumps are indispensable components for particle accelerator facilities to absorb or dispose beam kinetic energy in a safe way. However, the design of beam dumps based on conventional technology, i.e., energy deposition via beam–dense matter interaction, makes the beam dump facility complicated [...] Read more.
Beam dumps are indispensable components for particle accelerator facilities to absorb or dispose beam kinetic energy in a safe way. However, the design of beam dumps based on conventional technology, i.e., energy deposition via beam–dense matter interaction, makes the beam dump facility complicated and large in size, partly due to the high beam intensities and energies achieved. In addition, specific methods are needed to address the radioactive hazards that these high-power beams generate. On the other hand, the European Plasma Research Accelerator with eXcellence in Application (EuPRAXIA) project can advance the laser–plasma accelerator significantly by achieving a 1–5 GeV high-quality electron beam in a compact layout. Nevertheless, beam dumps based on the conventional technique will still produce radiation hazards and make the overall footprint less compact. Here, a plasma beam dump will be implemented to absorb the kinetic energy from the EuPRAXIA beam. In doing so, the overall compactness of the EuPRAXIA layout could be further improved, and the radioactivity generated by the facility can be mitigated. In this paper, results from particle-in-cell simulations are presented for plasma beam dumps based on EuPRAXIA beam parameters. Full article
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