Special Issue "Status of The Eupraxia Design Study – Towards The Next Generation of Particle Accelerators"

A special issue of Instruments (ISSN 2410-390X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Ralph Aßmann
Website
Guest Editor
Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron – DESY, 22607 Hamburg, Germany
Interests: plasma accelerators; dielectric structures
Prof. Dr. Carsten P. Welsch
Website
Guest Editor
QUASAR Group, University of Liverpool, the Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD, UK
Interests: accelerator design and optimization; novel beam diagnostics; applications of accelerators; high energy discovery machines; antimatter facilities; medical accelerators; accelerators-on-a-chip
Dr. Ricardo Torres

Guest Editor
QUASAR Group, University of Liverpool, the Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD, UK
Interests: plasma acceleration; high power lasers

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The EuPRAXIA consortium is preparing a conceptual design report of a highly compact and cost-effective European facility with multi-GeV electron beams using plasma as the acceleration medium. The accelerator facility will be based on a laser and/or a beam driven plasma acceleration approach and will be used for photon science, high-energy physics detector tests, and other applications, such as compact X-ray sources.

The aim of this Special Issue is to provide an overview of the current state of the design of the different elements of the EuPRAXIA facility, including simulations of different acceleration schemes, plasma structures, high-power lasers, and the development of possible applications like free-electron lasers and positron sources.

Dr. Ralph Aßmann
Prof. Dr. Carsten P. Welsch
Dr. Ricardo Torres
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Accelerator facilities
  • Novel accelerators
  • Laser wakefield acceleration Plasma wakefield acceleration
  • High-power lasers
  • Free Electron Lasers
  • Beam instrumentation
  • Beam diagnostics
  • Accelerator applications

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Plasma Beam Dumps for the EuPRAXIA Facility
Instruments 2020, 4(2), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments4020010 - 05 Apr 2020
Abstract
Beam dumps are indispensable components for particle accelerator facilities to absorb or dispose beam kinetic energy in a safe way. However, the design of beam dumps based on conventional technology, i.e., energy deposition via beam–dense matter interaction, makes the beam dump facility complicated [...] Read more.
Beam dumps are indispensable components for particle accelerator facilities to absorb or dispose beam kinetic energy in a safe way. However, the design of beam dumps based on conventional technology, i.e., energy deposition via beam–dense matter interaction, makes the beam dump facility complicated and large in size, partly due to the high beam intensities and energies achieved. In addition, specific methods are needed to address the radioactive hazards that these high-power beams generate. On the other hand, the European Plasma Research Accelerator with eXcellence in Application (EuPRAXIA) project can advance the laser–plasma accelerator significantly by achieving a 1–5 GeV high-quality electron beam in a compact layout. Nevertheless, beam dumps based on the conventional technique will still produce radiation hazards and make the overall footprint less compact. Here, a plasma beam dump will be implemented to absorb the kinetic energy from the EuPRAXIA beam. In doing so, the overall compactness of the EuPRAXIA layout could be further improved, and the radioactivity generated by the facility can be mitigated. In this paper, results from particle-in-cell simulations are presented for plasma beam dumps based on EuPRAXIA beam parameters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Free Electron Laser Performance within the EuPRAXIA Facility
Instruments 2020, 4(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments4010005 - 01 Feb 2020
Abstract
Over the past 90 years, particle accelerators have evolved into powerful and widely used tools for basic research, industry, medicine, and science. A new type of accelerator that uses plasma wakefields promises gradients as high as some tens of billions of electron volts [...] Read more.
Over the past 90 years, particle accelerators have evolved into powerful and widely used tools for basic research, industry, medicine, and science. A new type of accelerator that uses plasma wakefields promises gradients as high as some tens of billions of electron volts per meter. This would allow much smaller accelerators that could be used for a wide range of fundamental and applied research applications. One of the target applications is a plasma-driven free-electron laser (FEL), aiming at producing tunable coherent light using electrons traveling in the periodic magnetic field of an undulator. In this work, the plasma-based electron beams with the most promising qualities, designed in the framework of EuPRAXIA, are analyzed in terms of the FEL performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Wavelength Scaling of Laser Wakefield Acceleration for the EuPRAXIA Design Point
Instruments 2019, 3(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments3030044 - 21 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Scaling the particle beam luminosity from laser wakefield accelerators to meet the needs of the physics community requires a significant, thousand-fold increase in the average power of the driving lasers. Multipulse extraction is a promising technique capable of scaling high peak power lasers [...] Read more.
Scaling the particle beam luminosity from laser wakefield accelerators to meet the needs of the physics community requires a significant, thousand-fold increase in the average power of the driving lasers. Multipulse extraction is a promising technique capable of scaling high peak power lasers by that thousand-fold increase in average power. However, several of the best candidate materials for use in multipulse extraction amplifiers lase at wavelengths far from the 0.8–1.0 μm region which currently dominates laser wakefield research. In particular, we have identified Tm:YLF, which lases near 1.9 µm, as the most promising candidate for high average power multipulse extraction amplifiers. Current schemes to scale the laser, plasma, and electron beam parameters to alternative wavelengths are unnecessarily restrictive in that they stress laser performance gains to keep plasma conditions constant. In this paper, we present a new and more general scheme for wavelength scaling a laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) design point that provides greater flexibility in trading laser, plasma, and electron beam parameters within a particular design point. Finally, a multipulse extraction 1.9 µm Tm:YLF laser design meeting the EuPRAXIA project’s laser goals is discussed. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Conceptual Design of a Laser Driver for a Plasma Accelerator User Facility
Instruments 2019, 3(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments3030040 - 08 Aug 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The purpose of the European project EuPRAXIA is to realize a novel plasma accelerator user facility. The laser driven approach sets requirements for a very high performance level for the laser system: pulse peak power in the petawatt range, pulse repetition rate of [...] Read more.
The purpose of the European project EuPRAXIA is to realize a novel plasma accelerator user facility. The laser driven approach sets requirements for a very high performance level for the laser system: pulse peak power in the petawatt range, pulse repetition rate of several tens of Hz, very high beam quality and overall stability of the system parameters, along with 24/7 operation availability for experiments. Only a few years ago these performances were considered unrealistic, but recent advances in laser technologies, in particular in the chirped pulse amplification (CPA) of ultrashort pulses and in high energy, high repetition rate pump lasers have changed this scenario. This paper discusses the conceptual design and the overall architecture of a laser system operating as the driver of a plasma acceleration facility for different applications. The laser consists of a multi-stage amplification chain based CPA Ti:Sapphire, using frequency doubled, diode laser pumped Nd or Yb solid state lasers as pump sources. Specific aspects related to the cooling strategy of the main amplifiers, the operation of pulse compressors at high average power, and the beam pointing diagnostics are addressed in detail. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Novel High-Power, High Repetition Rate Laser Diode Pump Modules Suitable for High-Energy Class Laser Facilities
Instruments 2019, 3(3), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments3030034 - 04 Jul 2019
Abstract
The latest generation of high-energy-class pulsed laser facilities, under construction or planned, such as EuPRAXIA, require reliable pump sources with high power (many kW), brightness (>1 MW/cm2/sr) and electro-optical conversion efficiency (>50%). These new facilities will be operated at high repetition [...] Read more.
The latest generation of high-energy-class pulsed laser facilities, under construction or planned, such as EuPRAXIA, require reliable pump sources with high power (many kW), brightness (>1 MW/cm2/sr) and electro-optical conversion efficiency (>50%). These new facilities will be operated at high repetition rates (around 100 Hz) and only diode lasers are capable of delivering the necessary performance. Commercial (quasi-continuous wave, QCW) diode laser pulse-pump sources are, however, constructed as low-cost passively cooled stacked arrays that are limited either in brightness, efficiency or repetition rate. Commercial continuous wave diode laser pumps constructed using microchannel coolers (as used in high-value industrial machine tools) can fulfil all requirements, but are typically not preferred, due to their cost and complexity and the challenges of preventing cooler degradation. A custom solution is shown here to fill this gap, using advanced diode lasers in a novel passive side-cooling geometry to realize 100 … 200 Hz pump modules (10%–20% duty cycle) that emit peak power of 6 kW at wavelength = 940 nm. The latest performance of these modules is summarized and compared to literature. We show that a brightness >1 MW/cm2/sr can be efficiently delivered across a wide range of laser pulse conditions with 10% duty cycle (pulse width: 100 µs … 100 ms … cw, repetition rate up to 1 kHz). Furthermore, we describe how these pumps have been used to construct and reliably operate (>109 pulses without degradation) in high-energy-class regenerative and ring amplifiers at the Max-Born-Institut für Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI). We also show first results on 100 Hz pumping of cryogenically cooled solid-state Yb:YAG slab amplifiers, as anticipated for use in the EuPRAXIA laser, and note that peak temperature is disproportionately increased, indicating that improved cooling and more detailed studies are needed. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Permanent Magnet-Based Quadrupoles for Plasma Acceleration Sources
Instruments 2019, 3(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments3020027 - 23 Apr 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
The laser plasma accelerator has shown a great promise where it uses plasma wakefields achieving gradients as high as GeV/cm. With such properties, one would be able to build much more compact accelerators, compared to the conventional RF ones, that could be used [...] Read more.
The laser plasma accelerator has shown a great promise where it uses plasma wakefields achieving gradients as high as GeV/cm. With such properties, one would be able to build much more compact accelerators, compared to the conventional RF ones, that could be used for a wide range of fundamental research and applied applications. However, the electron beam properties are quite different, in particular, the high divergence, leading to a significant growth of the emittance along the transport line. It is, thus, essential to mitigate it via a strong focusing of the electron beam to enable beam transport. High-gradient quadrupoles achieving a gradient greater than 100 T/m are key components for handling laser plasma accelerator beams. Permanent magnet technology can be used to build very compact quadrupoles capable of providing a very large gradient up to 500 T/m. We present different designs, modeled with a 3D magnetostatic code, of fixed and variable systems. We also review different quadrupoles that have already been built and one design is compared to measurements. Full article
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