Applied Superconductivity for Particle Accelerator

A special issue of Instruments (ISSN 2410-390X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021) | Viewed by 30921

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. PNTZ Consulting Group, LLC, Danville, CA 94517, USA
2. Accelerator Tech-Applied Physics, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
Interests: superconductivity; experimental particle physics; superconductors; high temperature superconductivity; detector design

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Guest Editor
1. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), Batavia, IL 60510, USA
2. Graduate Faculty at the Materials Science and Engineering Department, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Interests: experimental physics; detectors; superconductivity and superconductors; nuclear reactors; particle accelerators; high field magnets

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will summarize the current status of accelerator magnet technology for particle accelerators with particular focus on the challenges and possible innovations using HTS materials as the basis for a new paradigm. The following general topics will be covered.

  • Current Status and Ultimate Potential of Nb3Sn
  • HTS for Particle Accelerator Magnets
    • Conductor Properties
    • Magnetic Design
    • Fabrication Techniques
    • Quench Detection and Magnet Protection
    • High Current Cables
    • Test Results
    • Summary of Active R&D Programs

Prof. Dr. Stephen Gourlay
Prof. Dr. Emanuela Z Barzi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Instruments is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • superconducting magnets
  • particle accelerators
  • high temperature superconductors

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 2618 KiB  
Article
Quench Detection and Protection for High-Temperature Superconductor Accelerator Magnets
by Maxim Marchevsky
Instruments 2021, 5(3), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments5030027 - 05 Aug 2021
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 6408
Abstract
High-temperature superconductors (HTS) are being increasingly used for magnet applications. One of the known challenges of practical conductors made with high-temperature superconductor materials is a slow normal zone propagation velocity resulting from a large superconducting temperature margin in combination with a higher heat [...] Read more.
High-temperature superconductors (HTS) are being increasingly used for magnet applications. One of the known challenges of practical conductors made with high-temperature superconductor materials is a slow normal zone propagation velocity resulting from a large superconducting temperature margin in combination with a higher heat capacity compared to conventional low-temperature superconductors (LTS). As a result, traditional voltage-based quench detection schemes may be ineffective for detecting normal zone formation in superconducting accelerator magnet windings. A developing hot spot may reach high temperatures and destroy the conductor before a practically measurable resistive voltage is detected. The present paper discusses various approaches to mitigating this problem, specifically focusing on recently developed non-voltage techniques for quench detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Superconductivity for Particle Accelerator)
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32 pages, 15598 KiB  
Article
HTS Accelerator Magnet and Conductor Development in Europe
by Lucio Rossi and Carmine Senatore
Instruments 2021, 5(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments5010008 - 23 Feb 2021
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 5671
Abstract
In view of the preparation for a post-LHC collider, in 2010 the high-energy physics (HEP) community started to discuss various options, including the use of HTS for very high-field dipoles. Therefore, a small program was begun in Europe that aimed at exploring the [...] Read more.
In view of the preparation for a post-LHC collider, in 2010 the high-energy physics (HEP) community started to discuss various options, including the use of HTS for very high-field dipoles. Therefore, a small program was begun in Europe that aimed at exploring the possibility of using HTS for accelerator-quality magnets. Based on various EU-funded programs, though at modest levels, it has enabled the European community of accelerator magnet research to start getting experience in HTS and address a few issues. The program was based on the use of REBa2Cu3O7−x (REBCO) tapes to form 10 kA Roebel cables to wind small dipoles of 30–40 mm aperture in the 5 T range. The dipoles are designed to be later inserted in a background dipole field (in Nb3Sn), to reach eventually a field level in the 16–20 T range, beyond the reach of Low Temperature Superconductors (LTS). The program is currently underway: more than 1 km of high-performance tape (Je > 500 A/mm2 at 20 T, 4.2 K) has been manufactured and characterized, various 30 m long Roebel cables have been assembled and validated up to 13 kA, a few dipoles have been wound and tested, reaching 4.5 T in stand-alone (while a dipole made from flat race track coils exceeded 5 T using stacked tape cable), and tests in background field are being organized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Superconductivity for Particle Accelerator)
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13 pages, 3509 KiB  
Article
Development of Radiation-Tolerant HTS Magnet for Muon Production Solenoid
by Toru Ogitsu, Masami Iio, Naritoshi Kawamura and Makoto Yoshida
Instruments 2020, 4(4), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments4040030 - 12 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2861
Abstract
Superconducting magnets are widely used in accelerator science applications. Muon production solenoids are applications that have recently attracted considerable public attention, after the approval of muon-related physics projects such as coherent muon to electron transition or muon-to-electron-conversion experiments. Based on its characteristics, muon [...] Read more.
Superconducting magnets are widely used in accelerator science applications. Muon production solenoids are applications that have recently attracted considerable public attention, after the approval of muon-related physics projects such as coherent muon to electron transition or muon-to-electron-conversion experiments. Based on its characteristics, muon production solenoids tend to be subjected to high radiation exposure, which results in a high heat load being applied to the solenoid magnet, thus limiting the superconducting magnet operation, especially for low-temperature superconductors such as niobium titanium alloy. However, the use of high-temperature superconductors may extend the operation capabilities owing to their functionality at higher temperatures. This study reviews the characteristics of high temperature superconductor magnets in high-radiation environments and their potential for application to muon production solenoids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Superconductivity for Particle Accelerator)
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13 pages, 3143 KiB  
Article
Conceptual Design of a HTS Dipole Insert Based on Bi2212 Rutherford Cable
by Alexander V Zlobin, Igor Novitski and Emanuela Barzi
Instruments 2020, 4(4), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments4040029 - 27 Sep 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2618
Abstract
The U.S. Magnet Development Program (US-MDP) is aimed at developing high-field accelerator magnets with magnetic fields beyond the limits of Nb3Sn technology. Recent progress with composite wires and Rutherford cables based on the first generation high-temperature superconductor Bi2Sr2 [...] Read more.
The U.S. Magnet Development Program (US-MDP) is aimed at developing high-field accelerator magnets with magnetic fields beyond the limits of Nb3Sn technology. Recent progress with composite wires and Rutherford cables based on the first generation high-temperature superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8−x (Bi2212) allows considering them for this purpose. However, Bi2212 wires and cables are sensitive to transverse stresses and strains, which are large in high-field accelerator magnets. This requires magnet designs with stress management concepts to control azimuthal and radial strains in the coil windings and prevent the degradation of the current carrying capability of Bi2212 conductor or even its permanent damage. This paper describes a novel stress management approach, which was developed at Fermilab for high-field large-aperture Nb3Sn accelerator magnets, and is now being applied to high-field dipole inserts based on Bi2212 Rutherford cables. The insert conceptual design and main parameters, including the superconducting wire and cable, as well as the coil stress management structure, key technological steps and approaches, test configurations and their target parameters, are presented and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Superconductivity for Particle Accelerator)
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13 pages, 3369 KiB  
Article
Heat Diffusion in High-Cp Nb3Sn Composite Superconducting Wires
by Emanuela Barzi, Fabrizio Berritta, Daniele Turrioni and Alexander V. Zlobin
Instruments 2020, 4(4), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments4040028 - 24 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2536
Abstract
A major focus of Nb3Sn accelerator magnets is on significantly reducing or eliminating their training. Demonstration of an approach to increase the Cp of Nb3Sn magnets using new materials and technologies is very important both for particle accelerators [...] Read more.
A major focus of Nb3Sn accelerator magnets is on significantly reducing or eliminating their training. Demonstration of an approach to increase the Cp of Nb3Sn magnets using new materials and technologies is very important both for particle accelerators and light sources. It would improve thermal stability and lead to much shorter magnet training, with substantial savings in machines’ commissioning costs. Both Hypertech and Bruker-OST have attempted to introduce high-Cp elements in their wire design. This paper includes a description of these advanced wires, the finite element model of their heat diffusion properties as compared with the standard wires, and whenever available, a comparison between the minimum quench energy (MQE) calculated by the model and actual MQE measurements on wires. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Superconductivity for Particle Accelerator)
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27 pages, 908 KiB  
Article
Dipole Magnets above 20 Tesla: Research Needs for a Path via High-Temperature Superconducting REBCO Conductors
by Xiaorong Wang, Stephen A. Gourlay and Soren O. Prestemon
Instruments 2019, 3(4), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments3040062 - 22 Nov 2019
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 4825
Abstract
To enable the physics research that continues to deepen our understanding of the Universe, future circular colliders will require a critical and unique instrument—magnets that can generate a dipole field of 20 T and above. However, today’s maturing magnet technology for low-temperature superconductors [...] Read more.
To enable the physics research that continues to deepen our understanding of the Universe, future circular colliders will require a critical and unique instrument—magnets that can generate a dipole field of 20 T and above. However, today’s maturing magnet technology for low-temperature superconductors (Nb-Ti and Nb3Sn) can lead to a maximum dipole field of around 16 T. High-temperature superconductors such as REBCO can, in principle, generate higher dipole fields but significant challenges exist for both conductor and magnet technology. To address these challenges, several critical research needs, including direct needs on instrumentation and measurements, are identified to push for the maximum dipole fields a REBCO accelerator magnet can generate. We discuss the research needs by reviewing the current results and outlining the perspectives for future technology development, followed by a brief update on the status of the technology development at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. We present a roadmap for the next decade to develop 20 T-class REBCO accelerator magnets as an enabling instrument for future energy-frontier accelerator complex. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Superconductivity for Particle Accelerator)
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Review

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22 pages, 4327 KiB  
Review
Superconducting Accelerator Magnets Based on High-Temperature Superconducting Bi-2212 Round Wires
by Tengming Shen and Laura Garcia Fajardo
Instruments 2020, 4(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments4020017 - 25 Jun 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 4904
Abstract
Superconducting magnets are an invaluable tool for scientific discovery, energy research, and medical diagnosis. To date, virtually all superconducting magnets have been made from two Nb-based low-temperature superconductors (Nb-Ti with a superconducting transition temperature Tc of 9.2 K and Nb3Sn [...] Read more.
Superconducting magnets are an invaluable tool for scientific discovery, energy research, and medical diagnosis. To date, virtually all superconducting magnets have been made from two Nb-based low-temperature superconductors (Nb-Ti with a superconducting transition temperature Tc of 9.2 K and Nb3Sn with a Tc of 18.3 K). The 8.33 T Nb-Ti accelerator dipole magnets of the large hadron collider (LHC) at CERN enabled the discovery of the Higgs Boson and the ongoing search for physics beyond the standard model of high energy physics. The 12 T class Nb3Sn magnets are key to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Tokamak and to the high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC that aims to increase the luminosity by a factor of 5–10. In this paper, we discuss opportunities with a high-temperature superconducting material Bi-2212 with a Tc of 80–92 K for building more powerful magnets for high energy circular colliders. The development of a superconducting accelerator magnet could not succeed without a parallel development of a high performance conductor. We will review triumphs of developing Bi-2212 round wires into a magnet grade conductor and technologies that enable them. Then, we will discuss the challenges associated with constructing a high-field accelerator magnet using Bi-2212 wires, especially those dipoles of 15–20 T class with a significant value for future physics colliders, potential technology paths forward, and progress made so far with subscale magnet development based on racetrack coils and a canted-cosine-theta magnet design that uniquely addresses the mechanical weaknesses of Bi-2212 cables. Additionally, a roadmap being implemented by the US Magnet Development Program for demonstrating high-field Bi-2212 accelerator dipole technologies is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Superconductivity for Particle Accelerator)
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