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Article

Microstructure and Unusual Ferromagnetism of Epitaxial SnO2 Films Heavily Implanted with Co Ions

by
Rustam I. Khaibullin
1,2,
Amir I. Gumarov
1,2,
Iskander R. Vakhitov
1,2,
Andrey A. Sukhanov
1,
Nikolay M. Lyadov
1,2,
Airat G. Kiiamov
2,
Dilyara M. Kuzina
3,
Valery V. Bazarov
1 and
Almaz L. Zinnatullin
1,2,*
1
Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute, FRC Kazan Scientific Centre of RAS, Kazan 420029, Russia
2
Institute of Physics, Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008, Russia
3
Institute of Geology and Petroleum Technologies, Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Condens. Matter 2024, 9(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat9020027
Submission received: 25 March 2024 / Revised: 2 June 2024 / Accepted: 7 June 2024 / Published: 11 June 2024

Abstract

In this work, we have studied the microstructure and unusual ferromagnetic behavior in epitaxial tin dioxide (SnO2) films implanted with 40 keV Co+ ions to a high fluence of 1.0 × 1017 ions/cm2 at room or elevated substrate temperatures. The aim was to comprehensively understand the interplay between cobalt implant distribution, crystal defects (such as oxygen vacancies), and magnetic properties of Co-implanted SnO2 films, which have potential applications in spintronics. We have utilized scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), differential thermomagnetic analysis (DTMA), and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) to investigate Co-implanted epitaxial SnO2 films. The comprehensive experimental investigation shows that the Co ion implantation with high cobalt concentration induces significant changes in the microstructure of SnO2 films, leading to the appearance of ferromagnetism with the Curie temperature significantly above the room temperature. We also established a strong influence of implantation temperature and subsequent high-temperature annealing in air or under vacuum on the magnetic properties of Co-implanted SnO2 films. In addition, we report a strong chemical effect of ethanol on the FMR spectra. The obtained results are discussed within the model of two magnetic layers, with different concentrations and valence states of the implanted cobalt, and with a high content of oxygen vacancies.
Keywords: cobalt implantation; tin dioxide; microstructure; ferromagnetism; scanning electron microscopy; X-ray diffraction; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; vibrating sample magnetometry; ferromagnetic resonance; spintronics cobalt implantation; tin dioxide; microstructure; ferromagnetism; scanning electron microscopy; X-ray diffraction; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; vibrating sample magnetometry; ferromagnetic resonance; spintronics

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MDPI and ACS Style

Khaibullin, R.I.; Gumarov, A.I.; Vakhitov, I.R.; Sukhanov, A.A.; Lyadov, N.M.; Kiiamov, A.G.; Kuzina, D.M.; Bazarov, V.V.; Zinnatullin, A.L. Microstructure and Unusual Ferromagnetism of Epitaxial SnO2 Films Heavily Implanted with Co Ions. Condens. Matter 2024, 9, 27. https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat9020027

AMA Style

Khaibullin RI, Gumarov AI, Vakhitov IR, Sukhanov AA, Lyadov NM, Kiiamov AG, Kuzina DM, Bazarov VV, Zinnatullin AL. Microstructure and Unusual Ferromagnetism of Epitaxial SnO2 Films Heavily Implanted with Co Ions. Condensed Matter. 2024; 9(2):27. https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat9020027

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khaibullin, Rustam I., Amir I. Gumarov, Iskander R. Vakhitov, Andrey A. Sukhanov, Nikolay M. Lyadov, Airat G. Kiiamov, Dilyara M. Kuzina, Valery V. Bazarov, and Almaz L. Zinnatullin. 2024. "Microstructure and Unusual Ferromagnetism of Epitaxial SnO2 Films Heavily Implanted with Co Ions" Condensed Matter 9, no. 2: 27. https://doi.org/10.3390/condmat9020027

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