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Fishes, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2017) – 4 articles

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Article
Trypanorhynch Assemblages Indicate Ecological and Phylogenetical Attributes of Their Elasmobranch Final Hosts
Fishes 2017, 2(2), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes2020008 - 17 Jun 2017
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1696
Abstract
This study explores non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) as a tool for investigating parasites as indicators of the elasmobranch biology. An attractive feature of nMDS is its ability to allow assemblage-level parasite data to be simultaneously applied to questions of host biology. This method [...] Read more.
This study explores non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) as a tool for investigating parasites as indicators of the elasmobranch biology. An attractive feature of nMDS is its ability to allow assemblage-level parasite data to be simultaneously applied to questions of host biology. This method was examined using the tapeworm order Trypanorhyncha Diesing, 1863, which is known to be transmitted among their hosts through the marine food web (via predation), can unambiguously be identified in the intermediate and final hosts, and has the potential as an indicator of the host feeding biology. Our analyses focused on trypanorhynch assemblages in elasmobranchs as definitive hosts. The relationships between trypanorhynch assemblages and the depth, feeding ecology, habitat, and phylogeny for all sharks were complex, but we found that depth distribution, diet composition and habitat type were the major influencing factors. Several species of sharks showed different characters than known from their descriptions that could be attributed to the change of shark behavior or the trypanorhynch host path. The relationship between the trypanorhynch assemblage and factors for carcharhiniform species alone was more robust than for all sharks. In the carcharhiniform analysis, the relationship between habitat type and trypanorhynch assemblage was most remarkable. Overlapping host ecology was evident even in phylogenetically-distant related hosts. Full article
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Article
Mugilids Display Distinct Trait-Mediated Patterns with a Reinvasion of Para Grass Urochloa mutica in a Tropical Estuary
Fishes 2017, 2(2), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes2020007 - 23 May 2017
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1609
Abstract
Aggressive invasions by species such as para grass Urochloa mutica (Forssk.) are pervasive throughout the tropics, but the impacts on estuarine habitats and biota are poorly understood. After weed control was reduced in a tropical estuary, U. mutica reinvaded this area composed of [...] Read more.
Aggressive invasions by species such as para grass Urochloa mutica (Forssk.) are pervasive throughout the tropics, but the impacts on estuarine habitats and biota are poorly understood. After weed control was reduced in a tropical estuary, U. mutica reinvaded this area composed of two contiguous habitats: a shallow pond and a deeper river. These habitats are especially important for Mugil cephalus, a culturally prized native mullet, and introduced Moolgarda engeli not targeted in the fishery. We investigated the potential impacts of U. mutica on juvenile and adult mullets by comparing the catch per unit effort (CPUE) of the two mullet species and the physiochemical measurements from the two contiguous habitats during different stages of its reinvasion. Overall, negative effects on the CPUE of M. cephalus and M. engeli were found as a result of the U. mutica reinvasion. The M. cephalus CPUE was consistently higher in the shallow pond habitat compared to the deeper river habitat. It decreased after U. mutica was established, correlative to the invasive grass canopies smothering the shallow habitat favored by juveniles. The M. engeli CPUE significantly declined during the initial periods of U. mutica reinvasion, but did not decline further after the grass became established. No differences in the M. engeli CPUE between habitats were found, indicating that M. engeli are habitat generalists. These findings are among the first in an insular tropical estuary demonstrating a negative relationship between an invasive grass and relative abundances of two confamiliar fish, while revealing distinct patterns attributed to species-specific traits. Importantly, the broad overlapping biogeographic distribution of M. cephalus and U. mutica, and the negative relationship between these species, raises widespread concern for this mullet as a globally important fisheries species. Full article
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Article
Distribution, Spread, and Habitat Predictability of a Small, Invasive, Piscivorous Fish in an Important Estuarine Fish Nursery
Fishes 2017, 2(2), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes2020006 - 13 May 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2265
Abstract
Invasive species often cause negative ecological and economic effects. Florida has >20 established invasive fish species but only seven exist in saltwater. The present study examined Belonesox belizanus (Pike Killifish), a Central American euryhaline fish introduced to Tampa Bay (west-central Florida) in the [...] Read more.
Invasive species often cause negative ecological and economic effects. Florida has >20 established invasive fish species but only seven exist in saltwater. The present study examined Belonesox belizanus (Pike Killifish), a Central American euryhaline fish introduced to Tampa Bay (west-central Florida) in the early 1990s, which has quantifiably reduced populations of small-bodied native fishes and may compete with prized sportfish juveniles in estuarine nursery habitat. Long-term monitoring revealed that B. belizanus occurs in estuarine waterbodies along a 31-km stretch of the bay’s eastern fringe, with a second, smaller population in two western tributaries. Spread rate was estimated to be 5.5–13 km year−1, intermediate among invasive poeciliids. A novel implementation of boosted regression tree modeling to assess B. belizanus habitat predictability found greater probability of presence with decreasing water depth and pH, whereas presence tended to be greatest at polyhaline salinity. It is hypothesized that B. belizanus distribution in Tampa Bay is constrained by deep, seawall habitats acting as ecological barriers. Further B. belizanus spread therefore may be most likely to occur by human release (from aquaria or bait buckets) or bird carry-off. Newly restored tidal habitat within the current range probably will be invaded quite quickly by B. belizanus. Full article
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Review
Macronutrient Requirements of Silvery-Black Porgy (Sparidentex hasta): A Comparison with Other Farmed Sparid Species
Fishes 2017, 2(2), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes2020005 - 13 May 2017
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2270
Abstract
Silvery-black porgy (Sparidentex hasta) is recognized as one of the most promising fish species for aquaculture diversification in the Persian Gulf and the Oman Sea regions. In this regard, S. hasta has received considerable attention, and nutritional studies focused on establishing [...] Read more.
Silvery-black porgy (Sparidentex hasta) is recognized as one of the most promising fish species for aquaculture diversification in the Persian Gulf and the Oman Sea regions. In this regard, S. hasta has received considerable attention, and nutritional studies focused on establishing the nutritional requirements for improving diet formulation have been conducted during recent years. Considering the results from different dose–response nutritional studies on macronutrient requirements conducted in this species, it can be concluded that diets containing ca. 48% crude protein, 15% crude lipid, 15% carbohydrates and 20 KJ g−1 gross energy are recommended for on-growing S. hasta juveniles. In addition, the optimum essential amino acid profile for this species (expressed as g 16 g N−1), should be approximately arginine 5.3, lysine 6.0, threonine 5.2, histidine 2.5, isoleucine 4.6, leucine 5.4, methionine + cysteine 4.0 (in a diet containing 0.6 cysteine), phenylalanine + tyrosine 5.6 (in a diet containing 1.9 tyrosine), tryptophan 1.0 and valine 4.6. Moreover, the optimum dietary n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and soybean lecithin are recommended to be 0.8% and 6%, respectively. The maximum replacement of fish meal with soy protein is recommended to be between 16.5% and 27.3%. In addition, different vegetal oil sources are also recommended for partial and almost complete replacement of fish oil in diets. Although the nutritional requirements in terms of macronutrients have been established under laboratory conditions, the analysis of the available literature indicate that future studies need to be conducted using a more holistic approach under intensive farming conditions in which different nutrients or additives need to be tested under different rearing conditions for refining nutrient requirements in this species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Requirements in New Fish Species Under Culture)
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