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Safety, Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) We investigated the forces on a mannequin when pulled at various angles and in two types of grain. [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Determining the Pull-Forces Required to Extricate a Victim Entrapped at Various Angles in a Grain Mass
Safety 2017, 3(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety3010011 - 11 Mar 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1672
Abstract
Prior research on extrication of victims entrapped in stored grain has measured the vertical forces applied to a representative victim (i.e., mannequin) using an anchor point that is mounted directly overhead. However, primarily because of how most grain storage structures are designed, the [...] Read more.
Prior research on extrication of victims entrapped in stored grain has measured the vertical forces applied to a representative victim (i.e., mannequin) using an anchor point that is mounted directly overhead. However, primarily because of how most grain storage structures are designed, the forces applied would more likely be coming from an angle. This is due to the victim typically being entrapped in the center of the grain mass while the access point is at the perimeter of the roof. The objective of this study was to measure the peak forces required to pull a mannequin at an angle and compare it to vertical pull. An adult-size mannequin was pulled out of dry corn and soybean masses from various depths and at various angles. It was found that both corn and soybeans were comparable regardless of depth or angle with the exception of 15° angle. It was also found that, at pulling angles of 60° and 75°, the loads were comparable to those required at 90° or directly overhead. Only at the sharper angles of 15° and 30° did the peak forces significantly increase. The results highlight that there is some flexibility in the placement of the anchor point and that extrication forces on the body will increase at sharper pull angles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Safety and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Beginner Driver Education in Oregon
Safety 2017, 3(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety3010009 - 21 Feb 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1818
Abstract
Although driver education (DE) is widely accepted as an effective teen driver safety measure and widely available in the United States, Canada and elsewhere, evaluations have generally failed to show that such formal programs actually produce safer drivers. To address the issue of [...] Read more.
Although driver education (DE) is widely accepted as an effective teen driver safety measure and widely available in the United States, Canada and elsewhere, evaluations have generally failed to show that such formal programs actually produce safer drivers. To address the issue of safety effects as part of a larger investigation, two studies were conducted to examine whether the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT)-approved DE program was associated with reductions in collisions and convictions. In the first study, DE status among a relatively small sample of teens who completed an online survey was not found to have a significant effect on collisions and convictions. In the second study, of a much larger population of teen drivers, DE status was associated with a lower incidence of collisions and convictions. On balance, this suggests that the safety effects of DE are either neutral, based on the results of the first Oregon study, or cautiously optimistic based on the results of the second study. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of making improvements in DE that are evidence-based, and the need for further evaluation to establish that improved and new programs meet their safety objectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driver/Rider Training)
Open AccessArticle
Post-Injury and Resolution Response to Repetitive Inhalation Exposure to Agricultural Organic Dust in Mice
Safety 2017, 3(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety3010010 - 21 Feb 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1843
Abstract
Inhalation of organic dusts in agricultural environments causes airway inflammatory diseases. Despite advances in understanding the airway response to dust-induced inflammation, less is known about the transition from lung injury to repair and recovery. The objective of this study was to define the [...] Read more.
Inhalation of organic dusts in agricultural environments causes airway inflammatory diseases. Despite advances in understanding the airway response to dust-induced inflammation, less is known about the transition from lung injury to repair and recovery. The objective of this study was to define the post-inflammation homeostasis events following organic dust-induced lung injury. Using an established protocol, mice were intranasally treated with swine confinement facility organic dust extract (ODE) daily for 3 weeks (repetitive exposure) or treated daily with ODE for 3 weeks followed by no treatment for 1-4 weeks (recovery period) whereupon lavage fluid, lung tissue, and sera were processed. During recovery period, a significant decrease was observed in ODE-induced neutrophil levels after 1 week, lymphocytes at 2 weeks, and macrophages at 4 weeks in the lavage fluid. ODE-induced lung cellular aggregates and bronchiolar compartment inflammation were diminished, but persisted for 4 weeks post-injury. Alveolar inflammation resolved at 3 weeks. ODE-induced lung neutrophils were cleared by 3 weeks, B-cells by 2 weeks, and CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ T cells by 4 week recovery period. Amphiregulin levels increased post-ODE exposure to the 4 week recovery period. Ex vivo amphiregulin production was demonstrated in lung type 2 innate lymphoid cells and macrophages isolated from the 4 week recovery (post-ODE exposure) animals. Collectively, these results identify important processes during recovery period following agricultural dust-induced inflammation, and present possible strategies for improving lung repair and resolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Safety and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Injury/Fatality-Causing Incidents Involving the Rearward Movement of Agricultural Machinery: Types, Causes, and Preventive Measures
Safety 2017, 3(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety3010008 - 08 Feb 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1516
Abstract
The research reported here sought to more fully understand the types and causative factors of injury/fatality incidents resulting from the rearward-movement of tractors and other self-propelled agricultural machinery, with the view that such findings might lead to the development, improvement, and/or better utilization [...] Read more.
The research reported here sought to more fully understand the types and causative factors of injury/fatality incidents resulting from the rearward-movement of tractors and other self-propelled agricultural machinery, with the view that such findings might lead to the development, improvement, and/or better utilization of safety procedures, design principles, and technologies that would prevent—or at least markedly reduce—their occurrence. Thus, the scope of this study focused only on rearward-travel (not mechanical malfunction) incidents, and principally on agricultural equipment (although cases involving similar equipment in industrial or construction settings were also drawn upon). Applying these two criteria, a search of published and online sources uncovered more than 100 documented cases, 35 of which could clearly be identified as rearward-movement incidents, of which 28 (80%) were fatal. Each of these 35 cases were then assessed, based on the type of machine, type of worksite, and type/description of incident (i.e., ‘scenario’), which fell into one of three distinct categories or classifications—(1) co-worker run over/crushed/otherwise injured because operator loses visual contact with co-worker; (2) bystander run over/crushed/otherwise injured because operator is unaware of bystander’s presence; and (3) operator run over/crushed/otherwise injured because operator loses visual contact with, or is unaware of, a stationary object or a hazard. Then, from each scenario, a representative incident (i.e., case study) was selected for a more in-depth analysis. The collective findings, from these three case studies and all 35 machinery rearward-movement incidents, were as follows: (1) The ‘victim’ could be the machine operator as well as a co-worker or a bystander; (2) The specific site of the co-worker or bystander injury/fatality was at the base of the machine’s rear tires or tracks, at the hitching point, or behind a towed implement; (3) The specific cause was loss of visual contact between the operator and co-worker/bystander due to visual obstruction, the operator’s physical limitations, or the operator’s and/or bystander’s lack of alertness. To reduce the likelihood of future occurrences of agricultural machinery rearward travel-related incidents, preventive measures aimed at addressing the key causative factors for each scenario are offered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Safety and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Opportunities for Using Building Information Modeling to Improve Worker Safety Performance
Safety 2017, 3(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety3010007 - 08 Feb 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2208
Abstract
Building information modelling (BIM) enables the creation of a digital representation of a designed facility combined with additional information about the project attributes, performance criteria, and construction process. Users of BIM tools point to the ability to visualize the final design along with [...] Read more.
Building information modelling (BIM) enables the creation of a digital representation of a designed facility combined with additional information about the project attributes, performance criteria, and construction process. Users of BIM tools point to the ability to visualize the final design along with the construction process as a beneficial feature of using BIM. Knowing the construction process in relationship to a facility’s design benefits both safety professionals when planning worker safety measures for a project and designers when creating a project’s design. Success in using BIM to enhance safety partly depends on the familiarity of project personnel with BIM tools and the extent to which the tools can be used to identify and eliminate safety hazards. In a separate, ongoing study, the authors investigated the connection between BIM and safety to document the opportunities, barriers, and impacts. Utilizing an on-line survey of project engineers who work for construction firms together with a comprehensive literature review, the study found those who use BIM feel that it aids in communication of project information and project delivery, both of which have been found to have positive impacts on construction site safety. Further, utilizing the survey results, the authors apply the binary logistic regression econometric framework to better understand the factors that lead to safety professionals believing that BIM increases safety in the work place. In addition, according to the survey results, a large percentage of the engineers who use BIM feel that ultimately it helps to eliminate safety hazards and improve worker safety. The study findings suggest that improvements in safety performance across the construction industry may be due in part to increased use of BIM in the construction industry. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Safety in 2016
Safety 2017, 3(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety3010006 - 11 Jan 2017
Viewed by 1188
Abstract
The editors of Safety would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016.[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Alcohol Inhibits Organic Dust-Induced ICAM-1 Expression on Bronchial Epithelial Cells
Safety 2017, 3(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety3010005 - 07 Jan 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1237
Abstract
Aims: Exposure to dusts/bioaerosols in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) results in inflammatory lung diseases in workers. Hog CAFOs dust extract (HDE) increases expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), neutrophil adhesion, and TNFα release in bronchial epithelial cells. Alcohol consumption is increasingly recognized [...] Read more.
Aims: Exposure to dusts/bioaerosols in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) results in inflammatory lung diseases in workers. Hog CAFOs dust extract (HDE) increases expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), neutrophil adhesion, and TNFα release in bronchial epithelial cells. Alcohol consumption is increasingly recognized to impair lung immunity. We hypothesized that alcohol impairs HDE-induced TNFα, ICAM-1 expression, and neutrophil adhesion by directly inhibiting TNFα converting enzyme (TACE) activity. Methods: Bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and primary human bronchial epithelial cells were pretreated with ethanol (EtOH) or TACE inhibitor. ICAM-1 surface expression; TNFα release; and TACE activity were analyzed following HDE stimulation. The effect of alcohol and TACE inhibition on HDE-regulated epithelial cell/neutrophil adhesion interactions was investigated. Finally; utilizing an established animal model; C57BL/6 mice were fed ad libitum ethanol (20%) in drinking water for 8 weeks followed by daily intranasal inhalation of HDE or saline during the final two weeks. Mice were sacrificed and lung sections immunostained for ICAM-1. Results: Pretreatment with alcohol or TACE inhibitor significantly decreased HDE-induced ICAM-1 expression and TNFα release. HDE augmented neutrophil adhesion to epithelial cells, which was decreased with alcohol (32% decrease) or TACE inhibitor (55% decrease) pretreatment. TACE activity increased following HDE exposure, but TACE activity was inhibited following alcohol pretreatment. Alcohol-fed mice demonstrated decreased HDE-induced airway epithelium ICAM-1 expression. Conclusions: Alcohol diminishes HDE-induced ICAM-1 expression, TNFα release, and neutrophil adhesion via inhibition of TACE activity. These results suggest that alcohol may be an important modulator of lung innate immune responses following CAFO exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Safety and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Using Expert Panel Data to Guide Youth Agricultural Safety and Health Training Resources in the US
Safety 2017, 3(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety3010004 - 01 Jan 2017
Viewed by 1247
Abstract
The US Department of Labor (US DOL) oversees the Agricultural Hazardous Occupations Orders (AgHOs), which identifies specific tasks that youth are prohibited from performing for hire on American farms and ranches. An educational exemption from this public policy is currently in place that [...] Read more.
The US Department of Labor (US DOL) oversees the Agricultural Hazardous Occupations Orders (AgHOs), which identifies specific tasks that youth are prohibited from performing for hire on American farms and ranches. An educational exemption from this public policy is currently in place that allows youth, 14–15 years old, to complete a certification program prior to engaging in agricultural work involving tractors and machinery. However, limited guidance is provided in the legislation regarding the format or content of the tractor and machinery certification exemption. Four AgHOs (tractor and machinery) studies were identified and included in this meta-analysis publication. The research goals of this analysis were to determine basic trends of learning outcomes, and identify educational content to be delivered as a result of these studies. Within each of the four studies, expert panels were used to identify educational learning outcomes. The analysis revealed that 48.0% (n = 184) of all learning outcome items fell within the Tractor-based (Tractor) learning outcome category, 29.8% (n = 114) within General Safety and Health (General), and 22.2% (n = 85) of items in the Machinery-based (Machinery) category. Ultimately, sound educational methods and understanding of fundamental student competence are essential components for any training program, including youth who complete AgHOs tractor and machinery certification programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Safety and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Identifying Topics and Dissemination Methods for Agricultural Safety and Health Messages
Safety 2017, 3(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety3010003 - 01 Jan 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1266
Abstract
As farm demographics change, it is important to create relatable, research-based safety and health materials, and deliver information via preferable methods. Three data collection methods (focus groups, surveys via National Agricultural Statistics Service, and face-to-face interviews) were administered to farmers in seven Midwestern [...] Read more.
As farm demographics change, it is important to create relatable, research-based safety and health materials, and deliver information via preferable methods. Three data collection methods (focus groups, surveys via National Agricultural Statistics Service, and face-to-face interviews) were administered to farmers in seven Midwestern states. Farmers were coded as retired, organic, residential/lifestyle, limited resource (<$249 K gross annual income), or large resource (>$250 K gross annual income). Issues addressed hazard perceptions, injury prevention measures, resource preferences and delivery, and preferred communication channels. Findings indicated that gender, age, and farming operation influence Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) use and communication preferences. Retired farmers and those with a higher percentage of income from farming are more likely to use radio as a communication medium. Research results will inform the creation of web-based, customizable educational materials for use by safety and health professionals and the public. Audio Public Service Announcements (PSAs) were recorded to reach farmers who indicated a preference for radio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Safety and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluating Speed Enforcement Field Set-Ups Used by Regional Police in Belgium: An Analysis of Speed Outcome Indicators
Safety 2017, 3(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety3010001 - 23 Dec 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1252
Abstract
In this paper the results from a field experiment (conducted in 2012) are presented, in which 3 regional police units in the Flemish region of Belgium each tested a particular combination of a speed control (with mobile radar in an anonymous car) with [...] Read more.
In this paper the results from a field experiment (conducted in 2012) are presented, in which 3 regional police units in the Flemish region of Belgium each tested a particular combination of a speed control (with mobile radar in an anonymous car) with communicative signage. The goal of this paper was to scientifically evaluate frequently used field set-ups. The following set-ups were tested in one week: (1) police unit 1: speed control with and without a static feedback sign placed after the control; (2) police unit 2: speed control with and without a digital feedback sign placed after the control; (3) police unit 3: speed display followed by a second speed display further along the road section. During certain time frames, speed control took place in between both signs. All tested field set-ups generated significant reductions in the speed level. Studying the effect of the different variations for each set-up reveals that the effect of the speed control is generally larger in combination with the signage alongside the road. After the period during which the police activities took place, speed levels again reached their initial level. Based on the before–after analysis, only in police area 2 was a small ‘time halo-effect’ found. To generalize results from this pilot study, repetition of tested set-ups in the field is recommended as well as testing on a larger scale. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Factors Influencing Learner Permit Duration
Safety 2017, 3(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/safety3010002 - 22 Dec 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1449
Abstract
An increasing number of countries are requiring an extended learner permit prior to independent driving. The question of when drivers begin the learner permit period, and how long they hold the permit before advancing to independent licensure has received little research attention. Licensure [...] Read more.
An increasing number of countries are requiring an extended learner permit prior to independent driving. The question of when drivers begin the learner permit period, and how long they hold the permit before advancing to independent licensure has received little research attention. Licensure timing is likely to be related to “push” and “pull” factors which may encourage or inhibit the process. To examine this question, we recruited a sample of 90 novice drivers (49 females and 41 males, average age of 15.6 years) soon after they obtained a learner permit and instrumented their vehicles to collect a range of driving data. Participants completed a series of surveys at recruitment related to factors that may influence licensure timing. Two distinct findings emerged from the time-to-event analysis that tested these push and pull factors in relation to licensure timing. The first can be conceptualized as teens’ motivation to drive (push), reflected in a younger age when obtaining a learner permit and extensive pre-permit driving experience. The second finding was teens’ perceptions of their parents’ knowledge of their activities (pull); a proxy for a parents’ attentiveness to their teens’ lives. Teens who reported higher levels of their parents’ knowledge of their activities took longer to advance to independent driving. These findings suggest time-to-licensure may be related to teens’ internal motivation to drive, and the ability of parents to facilitate or impede early licensure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Driver/Rider Training)
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