Identifying Topics and Dissemination Methods for Agricultural Safety and Health Messages
2.1. Protection of Human Subjects
2.2. Research Participants
2.3. Data Collection
2.4. Data Analysis
3.1. Hazard Perception
3.2. Screenings and Training
3.3. Injury Prevention Strategies
3.4. Child Safety
3.5. Hired Workers
3.6. Distribution and Delivery of Farm Safety and Health Education
4.1. Creation of Customizable Educational Fact Sheets
4.2. Creation of Radio Messages
Conflicts of Interest
|CS-CASH||Central States Center for Agricultural Safety and Health|
|CDC||Centers for Disease Control|
|ERS||Economic Research Service|
|IRB||Institutional Review Board|
|NIOSH||National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health|
|USDA||United States of Department of Agriculture|
Appendix A. Condensed NASS Survey
- Principle farm operator age, gender, and majority occupation
- Children, youth, and family members (number and ages)
- Hired worker numbers (less than 150 days, more than 150 days)
- Hazard concerns and desire information (machinery, buildings, exposures, health outcomes)
- Prevention (event participation, preventive practices, education preferences, information sources, safety services use)
- Communication (modes used daily, media outlets used, internet services)
- Children and youth (fencing, keep kids away, train kids, appropriate tasks, enforce rules, child care)
Appendix B. Focus Group Questions
- Living and working on a farm can be hazardous. Farm operations are changing. What do you see as major safety and health concerns on your farm now and in the near future?
- Farm families may have children living, working on, or visiting the farm. This is a concern as many children and youth have been injured on the farm. How are your children and grandchildren involved in your farming operation? What do you do to keep them safe?
- What do you see as being most effective in preventing injuries and making your farm a safer place to work and live on? Where might your time and resources be best spent—upgrading machinery, buildings, or living and environments, or obtaining safety and health training for people on the farm?
- It might be helpful to learn what other farmers are doing, or what research is showing about injuries, illnesses, and ways to prevent them. What kind of learning opportunities and resources would be most useful to you in your efforts to prevent farm injuries and keep everyone on the farm safe?
- Many kinds of educational resources have been created to encourage safe practices. Farmers seek information differently today than in the past. What kind of safety and health resources are useful to you now and in the future? Examples of the resources include:
● Brochures ● Demonstrations ● Fact sheets ● Books ● Video/CD/DVD ● Web Pages ● Posters ● Blog/Facebook ● Magazine articles ● Internet interactive games ● TV/Radio ● In-person call in numbers ● Puzzles/games
Appendix C. Condensed In-Person Interview Questions
- Ages of those living on your farm operation.
- Of the people listed above, how many have an off-farm job (4 or more hours a day) in addition to working on the farm?
- How many of the people listed above are retired from farming?
- About what percent of your total household income was from farming in the past year?
- Did your operation produce organic products (according to the National Organic Standards) for sale this past year? (yes, no)
- What safety and health hazards would you want more information on? (chronic exposure, acute hazards, behavior, wellness)
- What type of safety and health training would your family members be most likely to participate in? (classroom, distance ed, self-paced, certification courses)
- What kind of services would you be interested in using to make your farm safer? (health screening, hearing test, lung function, on-farm evaluation, consultation)
- What communication channels do you prefer to get safety and health information? (newsletter, mailed, radio, television, local paper, farm paper, websites, social media, e-mail, mobile phone)
- What kind of events do you or your family members participate in where farm safety and health information may be discussed? (day camp, school program, field trip, farm show, fair, Farm Bureauevent, agribusiness event)
- What sources of information do you trust and use the most? (Extension, university, government, public health, non-profit, agribusiness, radio, TV, internet)
- What kind of material would you prefer for learning about safety and health? (fact sheet, brochure, booklet, video, website, computer game, demonstrations, sample)
- Do you have kids living or visiting your farm? (no, yes)
- What methods do you use to protect children and youth from farm hazards? (fencing, keep kids aware, teach age-appropriate tasks, shielding, supervise, child care)
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|Collection Method and Instrument||Group Determination||Content/Issues Addressed||Number of Respondents (Response Rate)|
|National Agriculture Survey Service (NASS) Survey|
|Census of Agriculture Classifications|
Desire for information
Prevention strategies used
Child safety practices
|Census of Agriculture Classifications|
Farm Market iD
|Perceived hazards |
Injury prevention methods used
Preferred educational resources
|5 groups, 39 participants (Response rate not applicable)|
|Self-Identified by questions asked by interviewers||Resource delivery and format |
Preferred educational resources
Where information is obtained
Trusted and used information sources
Child safety practices
|511 (Response rate not applicable)|
|Age of Farmer||p Value (*)|
|Young (≤35)||Mid (36–55)||Older (56–85)|
|Learning formats||Short fact sheets||26 (41%)||121 (53%)||91 (53%)||0.27|
|Informational websites||22 (35%) *||100 (44%) *||41 (24%) **||0.002|
|Brochures||24 (38%)||81 (35%)||64 (37%)||0.94|
|Computer games||16 (25%) *||23 (10%) **||8 (5%) **||<0.0001|
|Booklets||16 (25%)||34 (15%)||39 (23%)||0.53|
|Hands-on demonstrations||26 (41%)||96 (42%)||58 (34%)||0.12|
|Videos||10 (16%)||61 (27%)||38 (22%)||0.86|
|Free product samples||27 (43%) *||65 (28%) **||42 (24%) **||0.02|
|Limited Resource||Residential/Lifestyle||Retired||Organic||Larger Resource||Totals|
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Burgus, S.; Duysen, E. Identifying Topics and Dissemination Methods for Agricultural Safety and Health Messages. Safety 2017, 3, 3. https://doi.org/10.3390/safety3010003
Burgus S, Duysen E. Identifying Topics and Dissemination Methods for Agricultural Safety and Health Messages. Safety. 2017; 3(1):3. https://doi.org/10.3390/safety3010003Chicago/Turabian Style
Burgus, Shari, and Ellen Duysen. 2017. "Identifying Topics and Dissemination Methods for Agricultural Safety and Health Messages" Safety 3, no. 1: 3. https://doi.org/10.3390/safety3010003