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Recent Progress in Photon Upconverting Gels

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Center for Molecular Systems (CMS), Kyushu University, 744 Moto-oka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan
PRESTO, JST, Honcho 4-1-8, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012, Japan
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 March 2019 / Revised: 21 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges for Gel Materials in the 21st Century)
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Recent progress in the development of gels showing triplet-triplet annihilation based photon upconversion (TTA-UC) is reviewed. Among the two families of upconverting gels reported, those display TTA-UC based on molecular diffusion show performances comparable to those in solutions, and the TTA-UC therein are affected by dissolved molecular oxygen. Meanwhile, air-stable TTA-UC is achieved in organogels and hydrogels by suitably accumulating TTA-UC chromophores which are stabilized by hydrogen bonding networks of the gelators. The unique feature of the air-stable upconverting gels is that the self-assembled nanostructures are protected from molecular oxygen dissolved in the microscopically interconnected solution phase. The presence of the bicontinuous structures formed by the upconverting fibrous nanoassemblies and the solution phase is utilized to design photochemical reaction systems induced by TTA-UC. Future challenges include in vivo applications of hydrogels showing near infrared-to-visible TTA-UC. View Full-Text
Keywords: photon upconversion; triplet-triplet annihilation; photoluminescence; oxygen blocking; self-assembly photon upconversion; triplet-triplet annihilation; photoluminescence; oxygen blocking; self-assembly

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Bharmoria, P.; Yanai, N.; Kimizuka, N. Recent Progress in Photon Upconverting Gels. Gels 2019, 5, 18.

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