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Worldwide Genetic Structure Elucidates the Eurasian Origin and Invasion Pathways of Dothistroma septosporum, Causal Agent of Dothistroma Needle Blight

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Phytophthora Research Centre, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Department of Forest Protection and Wildlife Management, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 3, 61300 Brno, Czech Republic
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Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, 51006 Tartu, Estonia
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Department Forest Ecosystems Protection, University of Agriculture in Kraków, 31-425 Kraków, Poland
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Department of Microbiology and Biomonitoring, University of Agriculture in Kraków, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
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Department of Biochemistry, Genetics and Microbiology, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria (UP), Pretoria 0002, South Africa
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Department of Plant Pathology and Mycology, Institute of Forest Ecology SAS, 949 01 Nitra, Slovakia
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Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Swiss Forest Protection, 8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland
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Department of Forest Protection, Slovenian Forestry Institute, Večna pot 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
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Department of Forest Protection, Wood Science and Game Management, Saint Petersburg State Forest Technical University, 194021 Saint Petersburg, Russia
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Department of Forest Protection, Ukrainian Research Institute of Forestry & Forest Melioration, 61024 Kharkiv, Ukraine
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Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 75007 Uppsala, Sweden
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Department of Forest Entomology, Phytopathology and Game Fauna, Forest Research Institut—Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1756 Sofia, Bulgaria
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Walloon Agricultural Research Centre, Department of Life Sciences, B-5030 Gembloux, Belgium
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Vokė Branch of Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, LT-02232 Vilnius, Lithuania
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Department of Agricultural, Food, Environmental and Forest Sciences and Technologies (DAGRI), University of Florence, 50144 Firenze, Italy
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Institute for Sustainable Plant Protection (IPSP), National Research Council of Italy (CNR), 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy
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Faculty of Forestry, University of Zagreb, 10002 Zagreb, Croatia
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Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and Environment, P.O. Box 2, FI-00791 Helsinki, Finland
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Faculty of Forestry, Çankırı Karatekin University, 18200 Çankırı, Turkey
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Department of Forestry and Renewable Forest Resources, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Večna pot 83, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
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Plant Health Diagnostic National Reference Laboratory, National Food Chain Safety Office, H-1118 Budapest, Hungary
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Nature Research Centre, Institute of Botany, Žaliųjų Ežerų Str. 49, LT-08406 Vilnius, Lithuania
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Norwegian institute of Bioeconomy, P.O. Box 115, N-1431 Ås, Norway
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Natural Resources Institute (LUKE), FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland
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Department of Forest and Conservation Sciences, Faculty of Forestry, The University of British Columbia, 2424 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
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Institut de Biologie Intégrative et des Systèmes (IBIS), Université Laval/Pavillon Charles-Eugène Marchand, 1030 Avenue de la Médecine, Québec City, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
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Department of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, 61137 Brno, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David S. Perlin
J. Fungi 2021, 7(2), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7020111
Received: 8 January 2021 / Revised: 25 January 2021 / Accepted: 26 January 2021 / Published: 3 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Fungal Genomics, Genetics and Molecular Biology)
Dothistroma septosporum, the primary causal agent of Dothistroma needle blight, is one of the most significant foliar pathogens of pine worldwide. Its wide host and environmental ranges have led to its global success as a pathogen and severe economic damage to pine forests in many regions. This comprehensive global population study elucidated the historical migration pathways of the pathogen to reveal the Eurasian origin of the fungus. When over 3800 isolates were examined, three major population clusters were revealed: North America, Western Europe, and Eastern Europe, with distinct subclusters in the highly diverse Eastern European cluster. Modeling of historical scenarios using approximate Bayesian computation revealed the North American cluster was derived from an ancestral population in Eurasia. The Northeastern European subcluster was shown to be ancestral to all other European clusters and subclusters. The Turkish subcluster diverged first, followed by the Central European subcluster, then the Western European cluster, which has subsequently spread to much of the Southern Hemisphere. All clusters and subclusters contained both mating-types of the fungus, indicating the potential for sexual reproduction, although asexual reproduction remained the primary mode of reproduction. The study strongly suggests the native range of D. septosporum to be in Eastern Europe (i.e., the Baltic and Western Russia) and Western Asia. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mycosphaerella pini; biogeography; ABC; DNB; global spread; introduction pathways; invasive pathogen; global spread Mycosphaerella pini; biogeography; ABC; DNB; global spread; introduction pathways; invasive pathogen; global spread
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mullett, M.S.; Drenkhan, R.; Adamson, K.; Boroń, P.; Lenart-Boroń, A.; Barnes, I.; Tomšovský, M.; Jánošíková, Z.; Adamčíková, K.; Ondrušková, E.; Queloz, V.; Piškur, B.; Musolin, D.L.; Davydenko, K.; Georgieva, M.; Schmitz, S.; Kačergius, A.; Ghelardini, L.; Kranjec Orlović, J.; Müller, M.; Oskay, F.; Hauptman, T.; Halász, Á.; Markovskaja, S.; Solheim, H.; Vuorinen, M.; Heinzelmann, R.; Hamelin, R.C.; Konečný, A. Worldwide Genetic Structure Elucidates the Eurasian Origin and Invasion Pathways of Dothistroma septosporum, Causal Agent of Dothistroma Needle Blight. J. Fungi 2021, 7, 111. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7020111

AMA Style

Mullett MS, Drenkhan R, Adamson K, Boroń P, Lenart-Boroń A, Barnes I, Tomšovský M, Jánošíková Z, Adamčíková K, Ondrušková E, Queloz V, Piškur B, Musolin DL, Davydenko K, Georgieva M, Schmitz S, Kačergius A, Ghelardini L, Kranjec Orlović J, Müller M, Oskay F, Hauptman T, Halász Á, Markovskaja S, Solheim H, Vuorinen M, Heinzelmann R, Hamelin RC, Konečný A. Worldwide Genetic Structure Elucidates the Eurasian Origin and Invasion Pathways of Dothistroma septosporum, Causal Agent of Dothistroma Needle Blight. Journal of Fungi. 2021; 7(2):111. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7020111

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mullett, Martin S.; Drenkhan, Rein; Adamson, Kalev; Boroń, Piotr; Lenart-Boroń, Anna; Barnes, Irene; Tomšovský, Michal; Jánošíková, Zuzana; Adamčíková, Katarína; Ondrušková, Emília; Queloz, Valentin; Piškur, Barbara; Musolin, Dmitry L.; Davydenko, Kateryna; Georgieva, Margarita; Schmitz, Sophie; Kačergius, Audrius; Ghelardini, Luisa; Kranjec Orlović, Jelena; Müller, Michael; Oskay, Funda; Hauptman, Tine; Halász, Ágnes; Markovskaja, Svetlana; Solheim, Halvor; Vuorinen, Martti; Heinzelmann, Renate; Hamelin, Richard C.; Konečný, Adam. 2021. "Worldwide Genetic Structure Elucidates the Eurasian Origin and Invasion Pathways of Dothistroma septosporum, Causal Agent of Dothistroma Needle Blight" J. Fungi 7, no. 2: 111. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7020111

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