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Review

Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19 and Cardiovascular Autonomic Dysfunction: What Do We Know?

1
Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, Institute for Advanced Biomedical Technologies, “G. d’Annunzio” University of Chieti-Pescara, Via Luigi Polacchi, 66100 Chieti, Italy
2
Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, 20502 Malmö, Sweden
3
Casa di Cura Villa Serena, Città Sant’Angelo, 66013 Pescara, Italy
4
Department of Translational and Precision Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy
5
Center for Inherited Cardiovascular Diseases, WellSpan Health, 140 North Pointe Boulevard, Lancaster, PA 17601, USA
6
Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
7
Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
8
Barts Heart Centre, Barts Health NHS Trust, London EC1A 7BE, UK
9
Cardiology, Heart, Vascular and Neuro Theme, Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
10
Department of Cardiology, Newham University Hospital, Barts Health NHS Trust, London E13 8SL, UK
11
NIHR Barts Biomedical Research Centre, William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London EC1A 7BE, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed to this work.
Academic Editor: Fabio Angeli
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2021, 8(11), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd8110156
Received: 26 October 2021 / Accepted: 10 November 2021 / Published: 15 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Acquired Cardiovascular Disease)
Post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC), or long COVID syndrome, is emerging as a major health issue in patients with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Symptoms commonly experienced by patients include fatigue, palpitations, chest pain, dyspnea, reduced exercise tolerance, and “brain fog”. Additionally, symptoms of orthostatic intolerance and syncope suggest the involvement of the autonomic nervous system. Signs of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction appear to be common in PASC and are similar to those observed in postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and inappropriate sinus tachycardia. In this review, we report on the epidemiology of PASC, discuss current evidence and possible mechanisms underpinning the dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system, and suggest nonpharmacological and pharmacological interventions to treat and relieve symptoms of PASC-associated dysautonomia. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction; long COVID syndrome; PASC; postural orthostatic tachycardia; post-acute sequelae; autoimmunity COVID-19; cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction; long COVID syndrome; PASC; postural orthostatic tachycardia; post-acute sequelae; autoimmunity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bisaccia, G.; Ricci, F.; Recce, V.; Serio, A.; Iannetti, G.; Chahal, A.A.; Ståhlberg, M.; Khanji, M.Y.; Fedorowski, A.; Gallina, S. Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19 and Cardiovascular Autonomic Dysfunction: What Do We Know? J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2021, 8, 156. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd8110156

AMA Style

Bisaccia G, Ricci F, Recce V, Serio A, Iannetti G, Chahal AA, Ståhlberg M, Khanji MY, Fedorowski A, Gallina S. Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19 and Cardiovascular Autonomic Dysfunction: What Do We Know? Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease. 2021; 8(11):156. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd8110156

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bisaccia, Giandomenico, Fabrizio Ricci, Vittoria Recce, Antonio Serio, Giovanni Iannetti, Anwar A. Chahal, Marcus Ståhlberg, Mohammed Yunus Khanji, Artur Fedorowski, and Sabina Gallina. 2021. "Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19 and Cardiovascular Autonomic Dysfunction: What Do We Know?" Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease 8, no. 11: 156. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd8110156

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