Next Article in Journal
Paving the Way to Increased Interoperability of Earth Observations Data Cubes
Previous Article in Journal
TIRF Microscope Image Sequences of Fluorescent IgE-FcεRI Receptor Complexes inside a FcεRI-Centric Synapse in RBL-2H3 Cells
Open AccessArticle

Catastrophic Household Expenditure for Healthcare in Turkey: Clustering Analysis of Categorical Data

1
Department of Industrial Engineering, Izmir Bakircay University, Izmir 35665, Turkey
2
Department of Management Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul 34367, Turkey
3
Department of Industrial Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul 34367, Turkey
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Data 2019, 4(3), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/data4030112
Received: 24 June 2019 / Revised: 21 July 2019 / Accepted: 27 July 2019 / Published: 29 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data-Driven Healthcare Tasks: Tools, Frameworks, and Techniques)
The amount of health expenditure at the household level is one of the most basic indicators of development in countries. In many countries, health expenditure increases relative to national income. If out-of-pocket health spending is higher than the income or too high, this indicates an economical alarm that causes a lower life standard, called catastrophic health expenditure. Catastrophic expenditure may be affected by many factors such as household type, property status, smoking and drinking alcohol habits, being active in sports, and having private health insurance. The study aims to investigate households with respect to catastrophic health expenditure by the clustering method. Clustering enables one to see the main similarity and difference between the groups. The results show that there are significant and interesting differences between the five groups. C4 households earn more but spend less money on health problems by the rate of 3.10% because people who do physical exercises regularly have fewer health problems. A household with a family with one adult, landlord and three people in total (mother or father and two children) in the cluster C5 earns much money and spends large amounts for health expenses than other clusters. C1 households with elementary families with three children, and who do not pay rent although they are not landlords have the highest catastrophic health expenditure. Households in C3 have a rate of 3.83% health expenditure rate on average, which is higher than other clusters. Households in the cluster C2 make the most catastrophic health expenditure. View Full-Text
Keywords: catastrophic household expenditure; health expenditures; socioeconomic factors; categorical clustering catastrophic household expenditure; health expenditures; socioeconomic factors; categorical clustering
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Dogan, O.; Kaya, G.; Kaya, A.; Beyhan, H. Catastrophic Household Expenditure for Healthcare in Turkey: Clustering Analysis of Categorical Data. Data 2019, 4, 112.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map

1
Back to TopTop