Next Article in Journal
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Contamination of Flamed and Braised Chickens and Health Risk Assessment in Burkina Faso
Next Article in Special Issue
Assessing Combined Effects for Mixtures of Similar and Dissimilar Acting Neuroactive Substances on Zebrafish Embryo Movement
Previous Article in Journal
In-Vitro and In-Silico Assessment of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) in Aqueous Film-Forming Foam (AFFF) Binding to Human Serum Albumin
Previous Article in Special Issue
Teratogenic, Oxidative Stress and Behavioural Outcomes of Three Fungicides of Natural Origin (Equisetum arvense, Mimosa tenuiflora, Thymol) on Zebrafish (Danio rerio)
Article

High-Throughput Screening of Psychotropic Compounds: Impacts on Swimming Behaviours in Artemia franciscana

1
Institute of Marine Science Laboratories, Ferry Road, Eastney, Hants PO4 9LY, UK
2
School of Pharmacy & Biomedical Science, White Swan Road, St. Michael’s Building, Portsmouth PO1 2DT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Demetrio Raldúa, Carlos Barata and Melissa Faria
Toxics 2021, 9(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9030064
Received: 31 January 2021 / Revised: 5 March 2021 / Accepted: 10 March 2021 / Published: 17 March 2021
Animal behaviour is becoming increasingly popular as an endpoint in ecotoxicology due to its increased sensitivity and speed compared to traditional endpoints. However, the widespread use of animal behaviours in environmental risk assessment is currently hindered by a lack of optimisation and standardisation of behavioural assays for model species. In this study, assays to assess swimming speed were developed for a model crustacean species, the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. Preliminary works were performed to determine optimal arena size for this species, and weather lux used in the experiments had an impact on the animals phototactic response. Swimming speed was significantly lower in the smallest arena, whilst no difference was observed between the two larger arenas, suggesting that the small arena was limiting swimming ability. No significant difference was observed in attraction to light between high and low light intensities. Arena size had a significant impact on phototaxis behaviours. Large arenas resulted in animals spending more time in the light side of the arena compared to medium and small, irrespective of light intensity. The swimming speed assay was then used to expose specimens to a range of psychotropic compounds with varying modes of action. Results indicate that swimming speed provides a valid measure of the impacts of behaviour modulating compounds on A. franciscana. The psychotropic compounds tested varied in their impacts on animal behaviour. Fluoxetine resulted in increased swimming speed as has been found in other crustacean species, whilst oxazepam, venlafaxine and amitriptyline had no significant impacts on the behaviours measured. The results from this study suggest a simple, fast, high throughput assay for A. franciscana and gains insight on the impacts of a range of psychotropic compounds on the swimming behaviours of a model crustacean species used in ecotoxicology studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: ecotoxicology; behaviour; artemia; psychotropics; behavioural ecotoxicology ecotoxicology; behaviour; artemia; psychotropics; behavioural ecotoxicology
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Kohler, S.A.; Parker, M.O.; Ford, A.T. High-Throughput Screening of Psychotropic Compounds: Impacts on Swimming Behaviours in Artemia franciscana. Toxics 2021, 9, 64. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9030064

AMA Style

Kohler SA, Parker MO, Ford AT. High-Throughput Screening of Psychotropic Compounds: Impacts on Swimming Behaviours in Artemia franciscana. Toxics. 2021; 9(3):64. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9030064

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kohler, Shanelle A., Matthew O. Parker, and Alex T. Ford 2021. "High-Throughput Screening of Psychotropic Compounds: Impacts on Swimming Behaviours in Artemia franciscana" Toxics 9, no. 3: 64. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9030064

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop