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Open AccessArticle

Salinity Changes the Dynamics of Pyrethroid Toxicity in Terms of Behavioral Effects on Newly Hatched Delta Smelt Larvae

1
Anatomy, Physiology & Cell Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
2
Department of Entomology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 11311, Egypt
3
Aquatic Systems Biology Unit, Department of Ecology and Ecosystem Management, Technical University of Munich, Mühlenweg 22, D-85350 Freising, Germany
4
US Geological Survey, California Water Science Center Sacramento, Sacramento, CA 95819, USA
5
Department Fisheries and Wildlife, Coastal Oregon Marine Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Xavier Cousin
Toxics 2021, 9(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9020040
Received: 30 December 2020 / Revised: 15 February 2021 / Accepted: 17 February 2021 / Published: 20 February 2021
Salinity can interact with organic compounds and modulate their toxicity. Studies have shown that the fraction of pyrethroid insecticides in the aqueous phase increases with increasing salinity, potentially increasing the risk of exposure for aquatic organisms at higher salinities. In the San Francisco Bay Delta (SFBD) estuary, pyrethroid concentrations increase during the rainy season, coinciding with the spawning season of Delta Smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus), an endangered, endemic fish. Furthermore, salinity intrusion in the SFBD is exacerbated by global climate change, which may change the dynamics of pyrethroid toxicity on aquatic animals. Therefore, examining the effect of salinity on the sublethal toxicity of pyrethroids is essential for risk assessments, especially during the early life stages of estuarine fishes. To address this, we investigated behavioral effects of permethrin and bifenthrin at three environmentally relevant concentrations across a salinity gradient (0.5, 2 and 6 PSU) on Delta Smelt yolk-sac larvae. Our results suggest that environmentally relevant concentrations of pyrethroids can perturb Delta Smelt larvae behavior even at the lowest concentrations (<1 ng/L) and that salinity can change the dynamic of pyrethroid toxicity in terms of behavioral effects, especially for bifenthrin, where salinity was positively correlated with anti-thigmotaxis at each concentration. View Full-Text
Keywords: bifenthrin; permethrin; estuary; multiple stressors; behavior; fish; pesticide; thigmotaxis; endangered species; global climate change bifenthrin; permethrin; estuary; multiple stressors; behavior; fish; pesticide; thigmotaxis; endangered species; global climate change
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MDPI and ACS Style

Segarra, A.; Mauduit, F.; Amer, N.R.; Biefel, F.; Hladik, M.L.; Connon, R.E.; Brander, S.M. Salinity Changes the Dynamics of Pyrethroid Toxicity in Terms of Behavioral Effects on Newly Hatched Delta Smelt Larvae. Toxics 2021, 9, 40. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9020040

AMA Style

Segarra A, Mauduit F, Amer NR, Biefel F, Hladik ML, Connon RE, Brander SM. Salinity Changes the Dynamics of Pyrethroid Toxicity in Terms of Behavioral Effects on Newly Hatched Delta Smelt Larvae. Toxics. 2021; 9(2):40. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9020040

Chicago/Turabian Style

Segarra, Amelie; Mauduit, Florian; Amer, Nermeen R.; Biefel, Felix; Hladik, Michelle L.; Connon, Richard E.; Brander, Susanne M. 2021. "Salinity Changes the Dynamics of Pyrethroid Toxicity in Terms of Behavioral Effects on Newly Hatched Delta Smelt Larvae" Toxics 9, no. 2: 40. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9020040

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