Next Article in Journal
A Novel Multi-Approach Protocol for the Characterization of Occupational Exposure to Organic Dust—Swine Production Case Study
Next Article in Special Issue
Dietary Cadmium Intake and Its Effects on Kidneys
Previous Article in Journal
Species and Sex Differences in the Morphogenic Response of Primary Rodent Neurons to 3,3′-Dichlorobiphenyl (PCB 11)
Brief Report

Effects of Cadmium Exposure on Age of Menarche and Menopause

by 1, 2 and 3,*
1
Department of Nephrology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, 180 Fenglin Road, Shanghai 200032, China
2
Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, 2094 Xietu Road, Shanghai 200032, China
3
Department of Occupational Medicine, School of Public Health, Fudan University, 150 Dongan Road, Shanghai 200032, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 December 2017 / Revised: 26 December 2017 / Accepted: 26 December 2017 / Published: 27 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cadmium Sources and Toxicity)
Cadmium exposure can cause several adverse health effects. Animal studies have also shown that cadmium exposure can affect menarche or menopause. However, data is limited in humans. We conducted a retrospective study to assess whether cadmium exposure was associated with different ages of menarche and menopause in a Chinese population. A total of 429 women living in control (n = 137) and two cadmium-polluted areas (n = 292) were included in this study. A total of 223 and 206 subjects were included in the analysis for menarche and menopause, respectively. The median menarche age of population living in the heavily cadmium-polluted area was significantly younger than those in the control area (14.0 vs. 15.0, p < 0.01). Logistic regression showed that the odds ratio (OR) of early occurrence of menarche (<13 years) in the population living in the heavily polluted area and moderately polluted area was 3.7 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5–9.7) and 1.3 (95% CI: 0.7–2.6) compared with control, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the age of menopause in the population of these three areas. In conclusion, our data indicated that cadmium exposure may cause early menarche. View Full-Text
Keywords: cadmium; female; menarche; menopause cadmium; female; menarche; menopause
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, X.; Zhu, G.; Jin, T. Effects of Cadmium Exposure on Age of Menarche and Menopause. Toxics 2018, 6, 6. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics6010006

AMA Style

Chen X, Zhu G, Jin T. Effects of Cadmium Exposure on Age of Menarche and Menopause. Toxics. 2018; 6(1):6. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics6010006

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chen, Xiao, Guoying Zhu, and Taiyi Jin. 2018. "Effects of Cadmium Exposure on Age of Menarche and Menopause" Toxics 6, no. 1: 6. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics6010006

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop