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Article

Lignocellulose-Degrading Enzymes: A Biotechnology Platform for Ferulic Acid Production from Agro-Industrial Side Streams

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Processing and Biochemistry Department, Institute of Horticulture, Graudu Str. 1, LV-3701 Dobele, Latvia
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Research Laboratory of Biotechnology, Division of Smart Technologies, Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Rigas Str. 22, LV-3004 Jelgava, Latvia
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Department of Environmental Science, University of Latvia, Jelgavas Str. 1, LV-1004 Riga, Latvia
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Research Laboratory of Biotechnology, Division of Agronomic Analysis, Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Strazdu Str. 1, LV-3002 Jelgava, Latvia
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Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Kr. Helmana Str. 8, LV-3004 Jelgava, Latvia
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Metabolomics Service, CEBAS-CSIC, University Campus of Espinardo, Edif. 25, 30100 Murcia, Spain
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Unit of Genetics and Breeding, Institute of Horticulture, Graudu Str. 1, LV-3701 Dobele, Latvia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Graziana Difonzo, Silvia Grassi and Maria Paciulli
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3056; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10123056
Received: 5 November 2021 / Revised: 28 November 2021 / Accepted: 3 December 2021 / Published: 8 December 2021
Biorefining by enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) of lignocellulosic waste material due to low costs and affordability has received enormous interest amongst scientists as a potential strategy suitable for the production of bioactive ingredients and chemicals. In this study, a sustainable and eco-friendly approach to extracting bound ferulic acid (FA) was demonstrated using single-step EH by a mixture of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes. For comparative purposes of the efficiency of EH, an online extraction and analysis technique using supercritical fluid extraction–supercritical fluid chromatography–mass spectrometry (SFE-SFC-MS) was performed. The experimental results demonstrated up to 369.3 mg 100 g−1 FA release from rye bran after 48 h EH with Viscozyme L. The EH of wheat and oat bran with Viscoferm for 48 h resulted in 255.1 and 33.5 mg 100 g−1 of FA, respectively. The release of FA from bran matrix using supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide and ethanol as a co-solvent (SFE-CO2-EtOH) delivered up to 464.3 mg 100 g−1 of FA, though the extractability varied depending on the parameters used. The 10-fold and 30-fold scale-up experiments confirmed the applicability of EH as a bioprocessing method valid for the industrial scale. The highest yield of FA in both scale-up experiments was obtained from rye bran after 48 h of EH with Viscozyme L. In purified extracts, the absence of xylose, arabinose, and glucose as the final degradation products of lignocellulose was proven by high-performance liquid chromatography with refractive index detection (HPLC-RID). Up to 94.0% purity of FA was achieved by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using the polymeric reversed-phase Strata X column and 50% EtOH as the eluent. View Full-Text
Keywords: biorefining; bran; enzymatic hydrolysis; green extraction; hydroxycinnamates; sustainability; valorization biorefining; bran; enzymatic hydrolysis; green extraction; hydroxycinnamates; sustainability; valorization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Radenkovs, V.; Juhnevica-Radenkova, K.; Kviesis, J.; Lazdina, D.; Valdovska, A.; Vallejo, F.; Lacis, G. Lignocellulose-Degrading Enzymes: A Biotechnology Platform for Ferulic Acid Production from Agro-Industrial Side Streams. Foods 2021, 10, 3056. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10123056

AMA Style

Radenkovs V, Juhnevica-Radenkova K, Kviesis J, Lazdina D, Valdovska A, Vallejo F, Lacis G. Lignocellulose-Degrading Enzymes: A Biotechnology Platform for Ferulic Acid Production from Agro-Industrial Side Streams. Foods. 2021; 10(12):3056. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10123056

Chicago/Turabian Style

Radenkovs, Vitalijs, Karina Juhnevica-Radenkova, Jorens Kviesis, Danija Lazdina, Anda Valdovska, Fernando Vallejo, and Gunars Lacis. 2021. "Lignocellulose-Degrading Enzymes: A Biotechnology Platform for Ferulic Acid Production from Agro-Industrial Side Streams" Foods 10, no. 12: 3056. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10123056

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