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Open AccessReview

Atomic Layer Deposition on Porous Materials: Problems with Conventional Approaches to Catalyst and Fuel Cell Electrode Preparation

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Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, 34th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
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Haldor Topsöe A/S, Haldor Topsøes Allé 1, 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
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Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, ICCOM-CNR, Consortium INSTM, University of Trieste, via L. Giorgieri 1, 34127 Trieste, Italy
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Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29201, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Inorganics 2018, 6(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics6010034
Received: 12 February 2018 / Revised: 9 March 2018 / Accepted: 10 March 2018 / Published: 13 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Inorganic Solid-State Chemistry)
Atomic layer deposition (ALD) offers exciting possibilities for controlling the structure and composition of surfaces on the atomic scale in heterogeneous catalysts and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrodes. However, while ALD procedures and equipment are well developed for applications involving flat surfaces, the conditions required for ALD in porous materials with a large surface area need to be very different. The materials (e.g., rare earths and other functional oxides) that are of interest for catalytic applications will also be different. For flat surfaces, rapid cycling, enabled by high carrier-gas flow rates, is necessary in order to rapidly grow thicker films. By contrast, ALD films in porous materials rarely need to be more than 1 nm thick. The elimination of diffusion gradients, efficient use of precursors, and ligand removal with less reactive precursors are the major factors that need to be controlled. In this review, criteria will be outlined for the successful use of ALD in porous materials. Examples of opportunities for using ALD to modify heterogeneous catalysts and SOFC electrodes will be given. View Full-Text
Keywords: atomic layer deposition; heterogeneous catalysts; SOFC; thin films; diffusion limitations; vapor-solid reaction; ceria; perovskites atomic layer deposition; heterogeneous catalysts; SOFC; thin films; diffusion limitations; vapor-solid reaction; ceria; perovskites
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MDPI and ACS Style

Onn, T.M.; Küngas, R.; Fornasiero, P.; Huang, K.; Gorte, R.J. Atomic Layer Deposition on Porous Materials: Problems with Conventional Approaches to Catalyst and Fuel Cell Electrode Preparation. Inorganics 2018, 6, 34.

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