Angles subtended at the second nodal point of the eye (NP2) are approximately the same as input visual angles over a very large angular range, despite the nodal point being a paraxial lens property. Raytracing using an average pseudophakic eye showed that the angular nodal point criterion was only valid up to about 10°, and that the linear relationship was due instead to the cornea and lens initially creating chief ray angles at the exit pupil that are about 0.83 times input values for this particular eye, and then by the retina curving around to meet the rays in a manner that compensates for increasing angle. This linear relationship is then also maintained when retinal intersections are calculated relative to other axial points, with angles rescaled approximately using the equation R/(R + delta), where delta is the axial distance from the center of a spherical retina of radius R. Angles at NP2 approximately match the input angles, but the terminology is misleading because this is not a paraxial property of the eye. Chief rays are used with finite raytracing to determine the actual behavior.
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