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Photonics, Volume 1, Issue 1 (March 2014) , Pages 1-66

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Open AccessArticle
The Escape of Sisyphus or What “Post NG-PON2” Should Do Apart from Neverending Capacity Upgrades
Photonics 2014, 1(1), 47-66; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics1010047 - 21 Mar 2014
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2264
Abstract
The primary design goal of (r)evolutionary NG-PON1&2 was the provisioning of an ever increasing capacity to cope with video-dominated traffic and handle the explosion of mobile data traffic by means of offloading. Recently, however, questions on the future of “post NG-PON2” have surfaced [...] Read more.
The primary design goal of (r)evolutionary NG-PON1&2 was the provisioning of an ever increasing capacity to cope with video-dominated traffic and handle the explosion of mobile data traffic by means of offloading. Recently, however, questions on the future of “post NG-PON2” have surfaced whether to shift its research focus to business and operation related aspects and move access technology into a substantially different direction than continued capacity upgrades. In fact, recent studies indicate that ultimately the major factor limiting the performance of 4G mobile networks is latency rather than capacity of the backhaul. In this paper, we review recently proposed low-latency techniques for NG-PONs that require architectural modifications at the remote node or distribution fiber level and highlight advanced network coding and real-time polling based low-latency techniques that can be implemented in software, enable NG-PONs to carry higher traffic loads and thereby extend their lifetime, and maintain the passive nature of existent optical distribution networks. Furthermore, we elaborate on emerging trends and open challenges for future post NG-PON2 research. To better understand their true potential, we put them into a wider non-technical and historical perspective leading up to a sustainable Third Industrial Revolution (TIR) economy and its underlying Energy Internet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue All Optical Networks for Communications)
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Open AccessArticle
Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) Enhancement Comparison of Impulse-, Coding- and Novel Linear-Frequency-Chirp-Based Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR) for Passive Optical Network (PON) Monitoring Based on Unique Combinations of Wavelength Selective Mirrors
Photonics 2014, 1(1), 33-46; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics1010033 - 20 Mar 2014
Viewed by 4258
Abstract
We compare optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) techniques based on conventional single impulse, coding and linear frequency chirps concerning their signal to noise ratio (SNR) enhancements by measurements in a passive optical network (PON) with a maximum one-way attenuation of 36.6 dB. A [...] Read more.
We compare optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) techniques based on conventional single impulse, coding and linear frequency chirps concerning their signal to noise ratio (SNR) enhancements by measurements in a passive optical network (PON) with a maximum one-way attenuation of 36.6 dB. A total of six subscribers, each represented by a unique mirror pair with narrow reflection bandwidths, are installed within a distance of 14 m. The spatial resolution of the OTDR set-up is 3.0 m. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue All Optical Networks for Communications)
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Open AccessReview
Instrumentation in Diffuse Optical Imaging
Photonics 2014, 1(1), 9-32; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics1010009 - 20 Mar 2014
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3163
Abstract
Diffuse optical imaging is highly versatile and has a very broad range of applications in biology and medicine. It covers diffuse optical tomography, fluorescence diffuse optical tomography, bioluminescence and a number of other new imaging methods. These methods of diffuse optical imaging have [...] Read more.
Diffuse optical imaging is highly versatile and has a very broad range of applications in biology and medicine. It covers diffuse optical tomography, fluorescence diffuse optical tomography, bioluminescence and a number of other new imaging methods. These methods of diffuse optical imaging have diversified instrument configurations, but share the same core physical principle: light propagation in highly diffusive media, i.e., biological tissue. In this review, the author summarizes the latest development in instrumentation and methodology available to diffuse optical imaging in terms of system architecture, light source, photo-detection, spectral separation, signal modulation and, lastly, imaging contrast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Optics and Optical Imaging)
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Open AccessEditorial
Photonics—Advances in Fundamental Sciences and Engineering Technologies of Light
Photonics 2014, 1(1), 1-8; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics1010001 - 20 Mar 2014
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2188
Abstract
Photonics is a field of sciences that focuses on the pursuit of the understanding basic properties of light, the interaction of light with materials, the fundamental concepts and technologies for generating and controlling the properties of light, the concept and technologies for transmitting [...] Read more.
Photonics is a field of sciences that focuses on the pursuit of the understanding basic properties of light, the interaction of light with materials, the fundamental concepts and technologies for generating and controlling the properties of light, the concept and technologies for transmitting and signal processing of light, the engineering of these technologies for manipulating light applicable for systems implementation. [...] Full article
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