This study aims to advance our knowledge in the genesis of extreme climatic events with the dual aim of improving forecasting methods while clarifying the role played by anthropogenic warming. Wavelet analysis is used to highlight the role of coherent Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies produced from short-period oceanic Rossby waves resonantly forced, with two case studies: a Marine Heatwave (MHW) that occurred in the northwestern Pacific with a strong climatic impact in Japan, and an extreme flood event that occurred in Germany. Ocean–atmosphere interactions are evidenced by decomposing state variables into period bands within the cross-wavelet power spectra, namely SST, Sea Surface Height (SSH), and the zonal and meridional modulated geostrophic currents as well as precipitation height, i.e., the thickness of the layer of water produced during a day, with regard to subtropical cyclones. The bands are chosen according to the different harmonic modes of the oceanic Rossby waves. In each period band, the joint analysis of the amplitude and the phase of the state variables allow the estimation of the regionalized intensity of anomalies versus their time lag in relation to the date of occurrence of the extreme event. Regarding MHWs in the northwestern Pacific, it is shown how a warm SST anomaly associated with the northward component of the wind resulting from the low-pression system induces an SST response to latent and sensible heat transfer where the latitudinal SST gradient is steep. The SST anomaly is then shifted to the north as the phase becomes homogenized. As for subtropical cyclones, extreme events are the culmination of exceptional circumstances, some of which are foreseeable due to their relatively long maturation time. This is particularly the case of ocean–atmosphere interactions leading to the homogenization of the phase of SST anomalies that can potentially contribute to the supply of low-pressure systems. The same goes for the coalescence of distinct low-pressure systems during cyclogenesis. Some avenues are developed with the aim of better understanding how anthropogenic warming can modify certain key mechanisms in the evolution of those dynamic systems leading to extreme events.
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