Next Article in Journal
Determination of KOSGEB Support Models for Small- and Medium-Scale Enterprises by Means of Data Envelopment Analysis and Multi-Criteria Decision Making Methods
Next Article in Special Issue
Synthesis of Porous Fe/C Bio-Char Adsorbent for Rhodamine B from Waste Wood: Characterization, Kinetics and Thermodynamics
Previous Article in Journal
Mixed Ionic-Electronic Conducting Membranes (MIEC) for Their Application in Membrane Reactors: A Review
Previous Article in Special Issue
Integration of Membrane Bioreactor and Nanofiltration for the Treatment Process of Real Hospital Wastewater in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Processes 2019, 7(3), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7030129

High Nitrate and Phosphate Ions Reduction in Modified Low Salinity Fresh Water through Microalgae Cultivation

1
Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Terengganu, Bukit Besi 23300, Dungun, Terengganu, Malaysia
2
Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam 40450, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Sarawak Branch, Samarahan Campus, Kota Samarahan 94300, Sarawak, Malaysia
4
Faculty of Computer Science and Mathematics, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Terengganu, Dungun 23000, Terengganu, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 8 February 2019 / Accepted: 8 February 2019 / Published: 1 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment Processes)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2859 KB, uploaded 4 March 2019]   |  
  |   Review Reports

Abstract

The treatment of nitrate and phosphate ions in fresh water such as streams, rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and wetlands through biological treatment has been getting more crucial and popular in recent years. This paper reports the reduction of nitrate and phosphate ions in modified low salinity fresh water via the cultivation of a microalgae strain, e.g., Tetraspora sp. and Spirogyra sp. The low salinity fresh water (9054 to 9992 ppm) was modified with the addition of organic fertiliser (VermiCompost Tea) and used as the cultivation medium to grow microalgae. The microalgae strains were grown under controlled conditions in an indoor laboratory for 14 days. The initial concentrations of nitrate and phosphate ions in the modified fresh water sample were 1.17 mg/L and 0.10 mg/L, respectively. The reduction of nitrate and phosphate ions associated with the effect of cultivation of Tetraspora sp. and Spirogyra sp. in ambient air (0.03% of CO2) and 15% of CO2 was investigated. In ambient air, the cultivation of Tetraspora sp. and Spirogyra sp. greatly reduced the nitrate ions concentration from 5.96 ± 0.28 to 0.37 ± 0.05 mg/L and from 2.35 ± 0.19 to 0.59 ± 0.08 mg/L, respectively. A 100% reduction of phosphate ions was observed in the cultivation of Tetraspora sp. and Spirogyra sp. from 0.52 ± 0.10 mg/L in 13 days of and from 0.63 ± 0.15 mg/L in 6 days, respectively. Meanwhile, with the aeration of 15% of CO2, after the 14 days cultivation of Tetraspora sp. and Spirogyra sp. reduced the nitrate ions concentration from 5.27 ± 0.06 to 1.80 ± 0.20 mg/L and from 4.73 ± 0.12 to 2.80 ± 0.10 mg/L, respectively. The excessive CO2 in water consequently lowered the pH of water medium from 7.18 to 6.60 due to the formation of carbonic acid (H2CO3). It was feasible to couple the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus in Sungai Sura (4°42″28.2° N 103°26″12.1° E) while cultivating microalgae through biological treatment to produce biomass for biofuel production. View Full-Text
Keywords: phosphate ions; nitrate ions; carbon dioxide; fresh water; low salinity; Tetraspora sp.; Spirogyra sp.; biodiesel phosphate ions; nitrate ions; carbon dioxide; fresh water; low salinity; Tetraspora sp.; Spirogyra sp.; biodiesel
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Mustaffa, A.R.; Ku Hamid, K.H.; Musa, M.; Idris, J.; Ramli, R. High Nitrate and Phosphate Ions Reduction in Modified Low Salinity Fresh Water through Microalgae Cultivation. Processes 2019, 7, 129.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Processes EISSN 2227-9717 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top