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Article

Pharmacological Profile of Nigella sativa Seeds in Combating COVID-19 through In-Vitro and Molecular Docking Studies

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Department of Biology, College of Sciences, University of Ha’il, Ha’il 2440, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, University of Ha’il, Ha’il 2440, Saudi Arabia
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Molecular Diagnostics and Personalized Therapeutics Unit, University of Ha’il, Ha’il 2440, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Pathology, Sub-Division of Medical Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Ha’il, Ha’il 2440, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Basic Dental and Medical Sciences, University of Ha’il, Ha’il 2440, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Physiotherapy, College of Applied Medical Sciences, University of Ha’il, Ha’il 2440, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Kelvin Chan, Karl Tsim and Yingqing Du
Processes 2022, 10(7), 1346; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10071346
Received: 18 May 2022 / Revised: 22 June 2022 / Accepted: 5 July 2022 / Published: 11 July 2022
COVID-19 infection is associated with elevated oxidative stress, systemic hyper-inflammatory responses, endothelial dysfunction, and red blood cell membrane deformability. Nigella sativa extract is widely used in alternative and complementary medicine systems in a large population, due to its highly therapeutic, economic, natural, and safe nature. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of N. sativa extract on oxidative stress, hemolysis, proteolysis, and glycation through in vitro studies, as well as to find out its anti-viral potential against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) using in silico studies. N. sativa seed extract (at 600 µg/mL) displayed 67.33% scavenging activity in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test, and 70.28% hydrogen peroxide reducing activity. N. sativa exhibited anti-proteolytic activity by decreasing heat-induced denaturation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and egg albumin by 63.14% and 57.95%, respectively, and exhibited anti-proteinase potential of 66.28% at 600 μg/mL. In addition, heat-induced hemolysis and hypersalinity-induced hemolysis were inhibited by 57.86% and 61.7%, respectively, by the N. sativa seeds. N. sativa also inhibited browning intensity by 56.38%, and percent aggregation index by 51.38%, amyloid structure by 48.28%, and AGE-specific fluorescence by 52.18%, thereby protecting the native structure of BSA from glycation. The binding interactions between bioactive molecules of N. sativa seed with SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein were proven by using in silico molecular docking tools. The functional amino acids involved in the interactions are Asp467, Thr108, Thr114, Ile468, Asn234, Gln155, Glu465, Arg466, Gly232, and Ile233, indicating the inhibiting property of N. sativa on SARS-CoV-2. Finally, we may infer that phytoconstituents of N. sativa seeds have the potential to protect against the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. Studies on N. sativa seeds might act as a path to develop a potent alternative therapy against viral infections, especially COVID-19 infection, in the future. However, the limitations linked with the use of natural products are also needed to be considered in this regard. View Full-Text
Keywords: N. sativa; SARS-CoV-2; anti-inflammatory; antioxidant; anti-albumin denaturation; spike protein; molecular docking N. sativa; SARS-CoV-2; anti-inflammatory; antioxidant; anti-albumin denaturation; spike protein; molecular docking
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sherwani, S.; Rajendrasozhan, S.; Khan, M.W.A.; Saleem, M.; Khan, M.; Khan, S.; Raafat, M.; Othman Alqahtani, F. Pharmacological Profile of Nigella sativa Seeds in Combating COVID-19 through In-Vitro and Molecular Docking Studies. Processes 2022, 10, 1346. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10071346

AMA Style

Sherwani S, Rajendrasozhan S, Khan MWA, Saleem M, Khan M, Khan S, Raafat M, Othman Alqahtani F. Pharmacological Profile of Nigella sativa Seeds in Combating COVID-19 through In-Vitro and Molecular Docking Studies. Processes. 2022; 10(7):1346. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10071346

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sherwani, Subuhi, Saravanan Rajendrasozhan, Mohd Wajid Ali Khan, Mohd Saleem, Mahvish Khan, Saif Khan, Mohamed Raafat, and Fatimah Othman Alqahtani. 2022. "Pharmacological Profile of Nigella sativa Seeds in Combating COVID-19 through In-Vitro and Molecular Docking Studies" Processes 10, no. 7: 1346. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10071346

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