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Open AccessArticle

Agreement between Fathers’ and Mothers’ Reported Stimulation and Associations with Observed Responsive Parenting in Pakistan

1
Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
2
Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Aga Khan University, Karachi 74800, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Children 2019, 6(10), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/children6100114
Received: 7 July 2019 / Revised: 22 September 2019 / Accepted: 7 October 2019 / Published: 15 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Global and Public Health)
Parental stimulation and responsiveness are associated with improved early child development outcomes. However, the majority of studies have relied on maternal-reported measures of only mothers’ parenting practices. The purpose of this study was to assess the agreement between fathers’ and mothers’ reports of their own and their partner’s engagement in stimulation and assess the degree to which parents’ reported stimulation correlated with their observed responsive caregiving behaviors. Data were collected from 33 couples (33 fathers and 32 mothers) who had a child under 5 years of age in rural Pakistan. Paternal and maternal stimulation were measured based on reports of their own and their partner’s practices in play and learning activities with the child. Paternal and maternal responsiveness were observed in a subsample of 18 families. Moderate agreement was found between paternal and maternal reports of their own and their partner’s practices. Moderate associations were also found between self-reported measures of stimulation and observed responsive caregiving for both fathers and mothers. The strengths of agreement and associations were greater among couples who had higher quality coparenting relationships. Findings highlight the feasibility, reliability, and promise of assessing fathers’ parenting in a low-resource setting, using similar methods as for mothers’ parenting, to triangulate measures between reported and observed parenting and gain a deeper understanding of fathers’ and mothers’ unique caregiving contributions. View Full-Text
Keywords: parenting; stimulation; responsiveness; parent–child interaction; fathers; early childhood; Pakistan parenting; stimulation; responsiveness; parent–child interaction; fathers; early childhood; Pakistan
MDPI and ACS Style

Jeong, J.; Siyal, S.; Yousafzai, A.K. Agreement between Fathers’ and Mothers’ Reported Stimulation and Associations with Observed Responsive Parenting in Pakistan. Children 2019, 6, 114.

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