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Open AccessArticle

Honokiol Protects the Kidney from Renal Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury by Upregulating the Glutathione Biosynthetic Enzymes

1
Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University College of Medicine, Jinju 52727, Korea
2
Department of Convergence Medical Sciences, Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University Graduate School, Jinju 52727, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomedicines 2020, 8(9), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8090352
Received: 4 August 2020 / Revised: 29 August 2020 / Accepted: 13 September 2020 / Published: 15 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular and Translational Medicine)
Glutathione (GSH) is an endogenous antioxidant found in plants, animals, fungi, and some microorganisms that protects cells by neutralizing hydrogen peroxide. Honokiol, an active ingredient of Magnolia officinalis, is known for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-bacterial properties. We investigated the protective mechanism of honokiol through regulating cellular GSH in renal proximal tubules against acute kidney injury (AKI). First, we measured cellular GSH levels and correlated them with the expression of GSH biosynthetic enzymes after honokiol treatment in human kidney-2 (HK-2) cells. Second, we used pharmacological inhibitors or siRNA-mediated gene silencing approach to determine the signaling pathway induced by honokiol. Third, the protective effect of honokiol via de novo GSH biosynthesis was investigated in renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) mice. Honokiol significantly increased cellular GSH levels by upregulating the subunits of glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gcl)—Gclc and Gclm. These increases were mediated by activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, via PI3K/Akt and protein kinase C signaling. Consistently, honokiol treatment reduced the plasma creatinine, tubular cell death, neutrophil infiltration and lipid peroxidation in IR mice and the effect was correlated with upregulation of Gclc and Gclm. Conclusively, honokiol may benefit to patients with AKI by increasing antioxidant GSH via transcriptional activation of the biosynthetic enzymes. View Full-Text
Keywords: acute kidney injury; antioxidant; glutamate-cysteine ligase; glutathione; honokiol; nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2; proximal tubule; renal ischemia reperfusion acute kidney injury; antioxidant; glutamate-cysteine ligase; glutathione; honokiol; nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2; proximal tubule; renal ischemia reperfusion
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MDPI and ACS Style

Park, E.J.; Dusabimana, T.; Je, J.; Jeong, K.; Yun, S.P.; Kim, H.J.; Kim, H.; Park, S.W. Honokiol Protects the Kidney from Renal Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury by Upregulating the Glutathione Biosynthetic Enzymes. Biomedicines 2020, 8, 352. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8090352

AMA Style

Park EJ, Dusabimana T, Je J, Jeong K, Yun SP, Kim HJ, Kim H, Park SW. Honokiol Protects the Kidney from Renal Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury by Upregulating the Glutathione Biosynthetic Enzymes. Biomedicines. 2020; 8(9):352. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8090352

Chicago/Turabian Style

Park, Eun J.; Dusabimana, Theodomir; Je, Jihyun; Jeong, Kyuho; Yun, Seung P.; Kim, Hye J.; Kim, Hwajin; Park, Sang W. 2020. "Honokiol Protects the Kidney from Renal Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury by Upregulating the Glutathione Biosynthetic Enzymes" Biomedicines 8, no. 9: 352. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8090352

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