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Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles Can Activate the Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition in an Experimental Gastric Cancer Model

1
Department of Oncology, Orenburg State Medical University, Orenburg 460000, Russia
2
Department of Histology, Cytology, Embryology, Orenburg State Medical University, Orenburg 460000, Russia
3
Department of Pathology, Orenburg State Medical University, Orenburg 460000, Russia
4
Department of Biophysics and Condensed Matter Physics, Orenburg State University, Orenburg 460018, Russia
5
Institute of micro- and nanotechnology, Orenburg State University, Orenburg 460018, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomedicines 2019, 7(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7010021
Received: 14 February 2019 / Revised: 14 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 19 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gastric Cancer Research: From Basic Science to the Clinic)
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Abstract

Previously, we have shown the possibility of intramucosal gastric carcinoma induction by the intragastric administration of a mixture of formaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide in rats. In this study, we report a sizable increase in carcinogenic properties of the mixture when a suspension containing calcium carbonate nanoparticles was added to it. This technique allowed us to reduce both the number of the carcinogen administrations from twelve to two and the time to the cancer induction from six to four months. Although the induced tumors were represented by the intramucosal carcinomas, they were characterized by the extensive invasion of individual tumor cells and their clusters into the muscle layer and serosa as well as into the omentum and blood vessels. Considering that the invasive tumor cells were positive for vimentin, Snail and TGF-β2, we concluded that their invasion was the result of the activation of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) mechanisms. Thus, taking into account the data obtained, it can be assumed that under the conditions of inflammation or carcinogenesis, the calcium carbonate nanoparticles may affect the activation of EMT mechanisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcium carbonate; carcinogenesis; epithelial–mesenchymal transition; gastric cancer; nanoparticles calcium carbonate; carcinogenesis; epithelial–mesenchymal transition; gastric cancer; nanoparticles
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Senchukova, M.; Tomchuk, O.; Shurygina, E.; Letuta, S.; Alidzhanov, E.; Nikiyan, H.; Razdobreev, D. Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles Can Activate the Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition in an Experimental Gastric Cancer Model. Biomedicines 2019, 7, 21.

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