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Biomedicines 2018, 6(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6010026

Immune Monitoring of Cancer Patients Prior to and During CTLA-4 or PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor Treatment

1
National Center for Tumor Diseases, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, Fetscherstraße 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany
2
Institute of Immunology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, Fetscherstraße 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany
3
Department of Neurosurgery, Section Experimental Neurosurgery and Tumor Immunology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, Fetscherstraße 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany
4
Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, Fetscherstraße 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany
5
Department of Radioimmunology, Institute of Radiopharmaceutical Cancer Research, Helmholtz Center Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 January 2018 / Revised: 19 February 2018 / Accepted: 23 February 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dissecting the Immunological Landscape of Human Malignancies)
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Abstract

Targeting the immune checkpoint receptors cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), or programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) represents a very attractive treatment modality for tumor patients. The administration of antibodies against these receptors can promote efficient antitumor effects and can induce objective clinical responses in about 20–40% patients with various tumor types, accompanied by improved survival. Based on their therapeutic efficiency, several antibodies have been approved for the treatment of tumor patients. However, many patients do not respond to checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Therefore, the identification of biomarkers is required to guide patient selection for this treatment modality. Here, we summarize recent studies investigating the PD-L1 expression or mutational load of tumor tissues as well as the frequency and phenotype of immune cells in tumor patients prior to and during CTLA-4 or PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer immunotherapy; immune monitoring; immune checkpoints; cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4; programmed cell death protein 1; programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 cancer immunotherapy; immune monitoring; immune checkpoints; cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4; programmed cell death protein 1; programmed cell death 1 ligand 1
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Tunger, A.; Kießler, M.; Wehner, R.; Temme, A.; Meier, F.; Bachmann, M.; Schmitz, M. Immune Monitoring of Cancer Patients Prior to and During CTLA-4 or PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor Treatment. Biomedicines 2018, 6, 26.

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