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Open AccessArticle

Socio-Demographic Determinants of Diet Quality in Australian Adults Using the Validated Healthy Eating Index for Australian Adults (HEIFA-2013)

Nutrition and Dietetics Group, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Charles Perkins Centre, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sampath Parthasarathy
Healthcare 2017, 5(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare5010007
Received: 27 October 2016 / Revised: 20 January 2017 / Accepted: 23 January 2017 / Published: 4 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet Quality)
Diet quality indices have been shown to predict cardiovascular disease, cancer, Type 2 Diabetes, obesity and all-cause mortality. This study aimed to determine the socio-demographics of Australian adults with poor diet quality. Diet quality was assessed for participants of the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey aged 18 years or above (n = 9435), with the validated 11-component Healthy Eating Index for Australians (HEIFA-2013), based on the 2013 Australian Dietary Guidelines. Differences in scores by demographics (ANOVA) and regression models for associations between the HEIFA-2013 score and demographic characteristics were conducted. The mean (SD) HEIFA-2013 score was 45.5 (14.7) out of 100 due to poor intakes of vegetables, fruit, grains, dairy and fat and high intakes of added sugar, sodium and discretionary foods. Lower mean HEIFA-2013 scores (SD) were found for males 43.3 (14.7), young-adults 41.6 (14.2) obese 44.1 (14.3), smokers 40.0 (14.2), low socio-economic status 43.7 (14.9) and Australian country-of-birth 44.2 (14.6) (p < 0.05). The overall diet quality of the Australian population is poor and targeted interventions for young-adults, males, obese and those with lower socio-economic status are recommended. View Full-Text
Keywords: diet quality; diet quality index; nutrition; 24-hour recall diet quality; diet quality index; nutrition; 24-hour recall
MDPI and ACS Style

Grech, A.; Sui, Z.; Siu, H.Y.; Zheng, M.; Allman-Farinelli, M.; Rangan, A. Socio-Demographic Determinants of Diet Quality in Australian Adults Using the Validated Healthy Eating Index for Australian Adults (HEIFA-2013). Healthcare 2017, 5, 7.

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    Description: Table S1. Mean (SD) for individual components of Healthy Eating Index for Australian Adults (HEIFA-2013) score (discretionary food, vegetable, fruit, grain, meat, dairy, water, unsaturated fat, sodium, and added sugar and alcohol scores) for demographic and socio-economic characteristics for all respondents including under- and over-reporters
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