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Article

Coordinated Control of Single-Phase End-Users for Phase Load Balancing in Active Electric Distribution Networks

Department of Power Engineering, “Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, 700050 Iasi, Romania
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alessandro Niccolai
Mathematics 2021, 9(21), 2662; https://doi.org/10.3390/math9212662
Received: 22 September 2021 / Revised: 19 October 2021 / Accepted: 19 October 2021 / Published: 21 October 2021
In the paper, a coordinated control methodology of single-phase (1-P) end-users switching operations on the phases of an active electric distribution network (AEDN) has been proposed to obtain a minimum unbalance degree at the coupling common point (CCP) level with the main distribution system. The phase load balancing (PLB) process considers the smart devices that switch the 1-P end-users (consumers and prosumers) from one phase to another to compensate for the phase load unbalance. The proposed methodology has been tested successfully in an AEDN belonging to a Romanian Distribution Network Operator (DNO) containing 114 end-users (104 consumers/10 prosumers) integrated into the Smart Metering System (SMS). The optimal solution leads to a value of the objective function by 1.00, represented by the unbalance factor (UF), which could be identified with the ideal target. A comparative analysis was conducted considering other possible PLB cases (the consumer-level PLB and prosumer-level PLB), obtaining similar values of the UF (1.027 vs. 1.028), slightly higher than in the hybrid-level PLB. Additionally, the significant technical benefits were quantified through an energy-saving of 58.73% and decreasing the phase voltage unbalance rate by 91% compared to the initial case (without PLB). These results emphasized the positive impact of the proposed coordinated control methodology on the PLB process and evidenced its effectiveness and applicability in the AEDNs. View Full-Text
Keywords: active electric distribution networks; phase load balancing; coordinated control; smart switching devices; end-users active electric distribution networks; phase load balancing; coordinated control; smart switching devices; end-users
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MDPI and ACS Style

Grigoraș, G.; Noroc, L.; Chelaru, E.; Scarlatache, F.; Neagu, B.-C.; Ivanov, O.; Gavrilaș, M. Coordinated Control of Single-Phase End-Users for Phase Load Balancing in Active Electric Distribution Networks. Mathematics 2021, 9, 2662. https://doi.org/10.3390/math9212662

AMA Style

Grigoraș G, Noroc L, Chelaru E, Scarlatache F, Neagu B-C, Ivanov O, Gavrilaș M. Coordinated Control of Single-Phase End-Users for Phase Load Balancing in Active Electric Distribution Networks. Mathematics. 2021; 9(21):2662. https://doi.org/10.3390/math9212662

Chicago/Turabian Style

Grigoraș, Gheorghe, Livia Noroc, Ecaterina Chelaru, Florina Scarlatache, Bogdan-Constantin Neagu, Ovidiu Ivanov, and Mihai Gavrilaș. 2021. "Coordinated Control of Single-Phase End-Users for Phase Load Balancing in Active Electric Distribution Networks" Mathematics 9, no. 21: 2662. https://doi.org/10.3390/math9212662

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