Next Article in Journal
Asymptotics of the Sum of a Sine Series with a Convex Slowly Varying Sequence of Coefficients
Previous Article in Journal
Sorting-Based Discrete Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Solving Fuzzy Hybrid Flow Shop Green Scheduling Problem
Previous Article in Special Issue
Artificial Intelligence Based Modelling of Adsorption Water Desalination System
Article

An Area Coverage Scheme Based on Fuzzy Logic and Shuffled Frog-Leaping Algorithm (SFLA) in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

1
Future Technology Research Center, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Douliou 64002, Yunlin, Taiwan
2
Department of Information Systems, College of Economics and Political Science, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat P.C.123, Oman
3
Department of Computer Engineering, Dezful Branch, Islamic Azad University, Dezful 73210, Iran
4
Department of Intelligent Mechatronics Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 05006, Korea
5
Department of Information and Communication Technology, Xiamen University Malaysia, Sepang 43900, Malaysia
6
Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning Lab, Gachon University, 1342 Seongnamdaero, Sujeanggu, Seongnam 13120, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Amir Masoud Rahmani and Rizwan Ali Naqvi have contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Michael Voskoglou
Mathematics 2021, 9(18), 2251; https://doi.org/10.3390/math9182251
Received: 5 August 2021 / Revised: 30 August 2021 / Accepted: 31 August 2021 / Published: 14 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fuzzy Sets, Fuzzy Logic and Their Applications 2021)
Coverage is a fundamental issue in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). It plays a important role in network efficiency and performance. When sensor nodes are randomly scattered in the network environment, an ON/OFF scheduling mechanism can be designed for these nodes to ensure network coverage and increase the network lifetime. In this paper, we propose an appropriate and optimal area coverage method. The proposed area coverage scheme includes four phases: (1) Calculating the overlap between the sensing ranges of sensor nodes in the network. In this phase, we present a novel, distributed, and efficient method based on the digital matrix so that each sensor node can estimate the overlap between its sensing range and other neighboring nodes. (2) Designing a fuzzy scheduling mechanism. In this phase, an ON/OFF scheduling mechanism is designed using fuzzy logic. In this fuzzy system, if a sensor node has a high energy level, a low distance to the base station, and a low overlap between its sensing range and other neighboring nodes, then this node will be in the ON state for more time. (3) Predicting the node replacement time. In this phase, we seek to provide a suitable method to estimate the death time of sensor nodes and prevent possible holes in the network, and thus the data transmission process is not disturbed. (4) Reconstructing and covering the holes created in the network. In this phase, the goal is to find the best replacement strategy of mobile nodes to maximize the coverage rate and minimize the number of mobile sensor nodes used for covering the hole. For this purpose, we apply the shuffled frog-leaping algorithm (SFLA) and propose an appropriate multi-objective fitness function. To evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme, we simulate it using NS2 simulator and compare our scheme with three methods, including CCM-RL, CCA, and PCLA. The simulation results show that our proposed scheme outperformed the other methods in terms of the average number of active sensor nodes, coverage rate, energy consumption, and network lifetime. View Full-Text
Keywords: wireless sensor networks (WSNs); coverage; fuzzy logic; metaheuristic algorithms; Internet of Things (IoT) wireless sensor networks (WSNs); coverage; fuzzy logic; metaheuristic algorithms; Internet of Things (IoT)
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Rahmani, A.M.; Ali, S.; Yousefpoor, M.S.; Yousefpoor, E.; Naqvi, R.A.; Siddique, K.; Hosseinzadeh, M. An Area Coverage Scheme Based on Fuzzy Logic and Shuffled Frog-Leaping Algorithm (SFLA) in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks. Mathematics 2021, 9, 2251. https://doi.org/10.3390/math9182251

AMA Style

Rahmani AM, Ali S, Yousefpoor MS, Yousefpoor E, Naqvi RA, Siddique K, Hosseinzadeh M. An Area Coverage Scheme Based on Fuzzy Logic and Shuffled Frog-Leaping Algorithm (SFLA) in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks. Mathematics. 2021; 9(18):2251. https://doi.org/10.3390/math9182251

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rahmani, Amir M., Saqib Ali, Mohammad S. Yousefpoor, Efat Yousefpoor, Rizwan A. Naqvi, Kamran Siddique, and Mehdi Hosseinzadeh. 2021. "An Area Coverage Scheme Based on Fuzzy Logic and Shuffled Frog-Leaping Algorithm (SFLA) in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks" Mathematics 9, no. 18: 2251. https://doi.org/10.3390/math9182251

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop