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Open AccessArticle

Clinical Pharmacy Intervention for Persons Experiencing Homelessness: Evaluation of Patient Perspectives in Service Design and Development

1
School of Pharmacy, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
2
Birmingham and Solihull Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham B23 6AL, UK
3
NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde, Glasgow, G76 7AT, UK
4
Institute of Health Informatics, University College London, London NW1 2DA, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmacy 2019, 7(4), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7040153
Received: 15 October 2019 / Revised: 4 November 2019 / Accepted: 11 November 2019 / Published: 13 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Inequality and Pharmacy)
Persons experiencing homelessness have a high prevalence of severe mental health problems, alcohol dependence, substance misuse and infectious hepatitis C, and face up to twelve times higher mortality rates compared to the general population. They also face barriers to accessing healthcare. However, clinical pharmacy services are currently not available to homeless populations in England. The aim of this study was to conduct public involvement sessions with persons experiencing homelessness with a view to inform the design of patient-centred clinical pharmacy healthcare services. Qualitative methodology was used, using a focus group with homeless persons from emergency shelters and one to one engagement with those sleeping rough, using a topic guide. A total of nine homeless persons took part—seven males and two females. The participants of the sessions said that patient-centred clinical pharmacy services delivered for homeless persons would address many of their unmet needs around access to medicines, their understanding of prescribed medicines and holistic management of their health. The service would be able to make a positive impact on their health outcomes by screening for health conditions, facilitating better integration across services, referral and liaison with other services, and minimising misuse of prescribed medicines. The findings of this study will be used to inform the development, implementation and evaluation of a patient-centred clinical pharmacy service tailored to meet the specific needs of the homeless population. View Full-Text
Keywords: homelessness; clinical pharmacy services; health inequality; public involvement and engagement homelessness; clinical pharmacy services; health inequality; public involvement and engagement
MDPI and ACS Style

Jagpal, P.; Barnes, N.; Lowrie, R.; Banerjee, A.; Paudyal, V. Clinical Pharmacy Intervention for Persons Experiencing Homelessness: Evaluation of Patient Perspectives in Service Design and Development. Pharmacy 2019, 7, 153.

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