Next Article in Journal
Validation of a Novel Electronic Device for Medication Adherence Monitoring of Ambulatory Patients
Previous Article in Journal
Clinical Pharmacy Intervention for Persons Experiencing Homelessness: Evaluation of Patient Perspectives in Service Design and Development
Open AccessReview

A Systematic Review of Models Used and Preferences for Continuing Education and Continuing Professional Development of Pharmacists

Pharmacy Department, Kingston University, Kingston Upon Thames KT1 2EE, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmacy 2019, 7(4), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7040154
Received: 22 August 2019 / Revised: 12 November 2019 / Accepted: 13 November 2019 / Published: 16 November 2019
Continuing Education (CE) or Continuing Professional Development (CPD) are used by pharmacists globally to maintain up-to-date knowledge and skills throughout their careers. The primary aim of this study was to identify the formats or models used by pharmacists for CE and CPD globally. The secondary aim was to identify preferences of pharmacists, in relation to the variety of formats or models used to fulfil mandatory requirements, in order to support future planning of lifelong learning events. A systematic review was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science covering a time period from 1995 until March 2018. Searches were conducted in English, with studies on undergraduate studies being excluded. Eighteen papers from an initial search of 4561 were included from 2004 to 2014. All studies focused on pharmacists. Three studies identified face-to-face learning as a preference, with six studies identifying a positive impact of interactive learning. All four identified studies focusing on online provision were linked to CE. One study highlighted the benefits of blended learning. Two studies identified concluded that no one size fits all. A clear structure of event was highlighted in three studies. Three studies highlighted the relevance of topics to practice, and two studies showed the need for opportunities to apply knowledge. Due to the variety of formats and no consistent model, no perfect model or activity has been identified. However, CPD showed increased practice outcomes versus CE. Although an increasing amount of technology is being utilized, face-to-face learning is still preferred. Interactive, multiple-format learning should be used where possible, to reflect preferences of different learners. There is a need for a structured approach to the planning and learning event itself to support CE and CPD. View Full-Text
Keywords: pharmacist; models; continuing education (CE); continuing professional development (CPD); systematic review pharmacist; models; continuing education (CE); continuing professional development (CPD); systematic review
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Micallef, R.; Kayyali, R. A Systematic Review of Models Used and Preferences for Continuing Education and Continuing Professional Development of Pharmacists. Pharmacy 2019, 7, 154.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop