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Article

Compound-Internal Language Mixing in American Norwegian

1
Department of Language and Literature, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
2
Department of Teacher Education, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Artemis Alexiadou and Terje Lohndal
Languages 2022, 7(2), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7020085
Received: 25 November 2021 / Revised: 10 March 2022 / Accepted: 25 March 2022 / Published: 31 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Word Formation and Language Contact: A Formal Perspective)
This paper investigates cases of compounding in the heritage language American Norwegian (AmNo), where elements from Norwegian and English are mixed word-internally, e.g., hoste-candy ‘cough candy’, where the Norwegian item hoste ‘cough’ is combined with the English item candy. Norwegian and English create compounds in similar ways, but with certain important differences, e.g., the use of linking elements. Based on data from the Corpus of American Nordic Speech, we investigate the encounter of these two languages within one word and find that both Norwegian and English lexical items occur as both left-hand and right-hand members of mixed compounds. Moreover, these mixed compounds are generally accompanied by Norwegian functional items. Hence, we argue that the overall structure of mixed compounds in AmNo is Norwegian, and English lexical items may be inserted into specific positions. This is successfully analyzed in a DM/exoskeletal model of grammar. We show that our results are in line with what we expect based on previous accounts of AmNo language mixing and Norwegian compounds, and our specific focus on compound-internal mixing provides a novel perspective and new insights into both the structure of compounds and the nature of language mixing. View Full-Text
Keywords: compounds; language mixing; American Norwegian; heritage language compounds; language mixing; American Norwegian; heritage language
MDPI and ACS Style

Eik, R.; Riksem, B.R. Compound-Internal Language Mixing in American Norwegian. Languages 2022, 7, 85. https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7020085

AMA Style

Eik R, Riksem BR. Compound-Internal Language Mixing in American Norwegian. Languages. 2022; 7(2):85. https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7020085

Chicago/Turabian Style

Eik, Ragnhild, and Brita Ramsevik Riksem. 2022. "Compound-Internal Language Mixing in American Norwegian" Languages 7, no. 2: 85. https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7020085

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