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Aerospace 2018, 5(4), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace5040112

Simulation Model to Calculate Bird-Aircraft Collisions and Near Misses in the Airport Vicinity

1
Institute of Flight Guidance, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Lilienthalplatz 7, 38108 Braunschweig, Germany
2
Control & Simulation Department, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft, The Netherlands
3
Royal Netherlands Air Force, P.O. Box 8762, 4820 BB Breda, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 September 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 21 October 2018 / Published: 25 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Air Transportation—Operations and Management)
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Abstract

Annually, thousands of birds collide with aircraft. The impact usually has lethal consequences for the bird, the involved aircraft can experience severe damage. The highest bird strike risk occurs at low altitudes. Therefore, aircraft within the airport area as well as the adjacent approach and departure corridors are especially vulnerable to collisions with birds. To analyse risk-reducing measures in these areas, a fast-time bird strike simulation environment was developed. An open-source Air Traffic Management simulator was enhanced with a model to represent bird movements and to recognize bird strikes. To confirm the reproducibility of the outcome, Monte Carlo simulations were performed. They included bird movement data from one year and air traffic flight plans for various air traffic volumes. The number of strikes and near misses showed an expected variance within the individual replications. The results indicate that the predictability of the number of strikes and near misses increases with rising number of birds, and rising air traffic intensity. Thus, by considering simulation scenarios including bird movement information from all seasons and a sufficient air traffic volume, the described set-up leads to stable results. View Full-Text
Keywords: aviation safety; bird movement model; bird strike; fast-time simulation; monte carlo simulation; near miss; risk calculation; runway capacity aviation safety; bird movement model; bird strike; fast-time simulation; monte carlo simulation; near miss; risk calculation; runway capacity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Metz, I.C.; Mühlhausen, T.; Ellerbroek, J.; Kügler, D.; Van Gasteren, H.; Kraemer, J.; Hoekstra, J.M. Simulation Model to Calculate Bird-Aircraft Collisions and Near Misses in the Airport Vicinity. Aerospace 2018, 5, 112.

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