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Article

Macrophomina Crown and Root Rot of Pistachio in California

1
Kearney Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Parlier, CA 93648, USA
2
Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
3
University of California Cooperative Extension Kern County, Bakersfield, CA 93307, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2020, 9(2), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9020134
Received: 3 January 2020 / Revised: 17 January 2020 / Accepted: 20 January 2020 / Published: 21 January 2020
In this study, declining pistachio rootstocks were detected in newly planted commercial pistachio orchards in Kern County, California. Symptoms were characterized by wilted foliage combined with crown rot in the rootstock. From diseased trees, 42 isolates were obtained, and all had similar cultural and morphological characteristics of Macrophomina phaseolina. Analyses of nucleotide sequences of three gene fragments, the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1–5.8S–ITS2), partial sequences of β-tubulin, and translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1) confirmed this identification, and 20 representative isolates are presented in the phylogenetic study. Testing of Koch’s postulates showed that M. phaseolina, when inoculated to stems and roots of the pistachio rootstocks using mycelial plugs or a microsclerotial suspension, is indeed pathogenic to this host. The widely used clonal University of California Berkeley I (UCBI) rootstock appeared highly susceptible to M. phaseolina, suggesting that this pathogen is an emerging threat to the production of pistachio in California. This study confirmed the association of M. phaseolina with the decline of pistachio trees and represents the first description of this fungus as a crown rot-causing agent of pistachio in California. View Full-Text
Keywords: pistachio; crown rot; root rot; Macrophomina phaseolina; pathogenicity pistachio; crown rot; root rot; Macrophomina phaseolina; pathogenicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nouri, M.T.; Lawrence, D.P.; Kallsen, C.E.; Trouillas, F.P. Macrophomina Crown and Root Rot of Pistachio in California. Plants 2020, 9, 134. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9020134

AMA Style

Nouri MT, Lawrence DP, Kallsen CE, Trouillas FP. Macrophomina Crown and Root Rot of Pistachio in California. Plants. 2020; 9(2):134. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9020134

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nouri, Mohamed T., Daniel P. Lawrence, Craig E. Kallsen, and Florent P. Trouillas 2020. "Macrophomina Crown and Root Rot of Pistachio in California" Plants 9, no. 2: 134. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9020134

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