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Role of Silicon in Mediating Salt Tolerance in Plants: A Review

1,†, 2,† and 1,3,*
1
College of Horticulture and Gardening/College of Agriculture, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434000, China
2
College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
3
Forewarning and Management of Agricultural and Forestry Pests, Hubei Engineering Technology Center, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Plants 2019, 8(6), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8060147
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 28 May 2019 / Accepted: 29 May 2019 / Published: 31 May 2019
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PDF [2084 KB, uploaded 31 May 2019]
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Abstract

Salt stress is a major threat for plant growth worldwide. The regulatory mechanisms of silicon in alleviating salt stress have been widely studied using physiological, molecular genetics, and genomic approaches. Recently, progresses have been made in elucidating the alleviative effects of silicon in salt-induced osmotic stress, Na toxicity, and oxidative stress. In this review, we highlight recent development on the impact of silicon application on salt stress responses. Emphasis will be given to the following aspects. (1) Silicon transporters have been experimentally identified in different plant species and their structure feature could be an important molecular basis for silicon permeability. (2) Silicon could mediate salt-induced ion imbalance by (i) regulating Na+ uptake, transport, and distribution and (ii) regulating polyamine levels. (3) Si-mediated upregulation of aquaporin gene expression and osmotic adjustment play important roles in alleviating salinity-induced osmotic stress. (4) Silicon application direct/indirectly mitigates oxidative stress via regulating the antioxidant defense and polyamine metabolism. (5) Omics studies reveal that silicon could regulate plants’ response to salt stress by modulating the expression of various genes including transcription factors and hormone-related genes. Finally, research areas that require further investigation to provide a deeper understanding of the role of silicon in plants are highlighted. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidant enzymes; polyamine; salt stress; silicon; water balance antioxidant enzymes; polyamine; salt stress; silicon; water balance
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Zhu, Y.-X.; Gong, H.-J.; Yin, J.-L. Role of Silicon in Mediating Salt Tolerance in Plants: A Review. Plants 2019, 8, 147.

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