Previous Issue
Volume 9, January

Table of Contents

ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf., Volume 9, Issue 2 (February 2020) – 72 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Over the past decade, the adoption of open source software and open data principles has accelerated [...] Read more.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Spatiotemporal Characteristics and Driving Force Analysis of Flash Floods in Fujian Province
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(2), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9020133 (registering DOI) - 23 Feb 2020
Abstract
Flash floods are one of the most destructive natural disasters. The comprehensive identification of the spatiotemporal characteristics and driving factors of a flash flood is the basis for the scientific understanding of the formation mechanism and the distribution characteristics of flash floods. In [...] Read more.
Flash floods are one of the most destructive natural disasters. The comprehensive identification of the spatiotemporal characteristics and driving factors of a flash flood is the basis for the scientific understanding of the formation mechanism and the distribution characteristics of flash floods. In this study, we explored the spatiotemporal patterns of flash floods in Fujian Province from 1951 to 2015. Then, we analyzed the driving forces of flash floods in geomorphic regions with three different grades based on three methods, namely, geographical detector, principal component analysis, and multiple linear regression. Finally, the sensitivity of flash floods to the gross domestic product, village point density, annual maximum one-day precipitation (Rx1day), and annual total precipitation from days > 95th percentile (R95p) was analyzed. The analytical results indicated that (1) The counts of flash floods rose sharply from 1988, and the spatial distribution of flash floods mainly extended from the coastal low mountains, hills, and plain regions of Fujian (IIA2) to the low-middle mountains, hills, and valley regions in the Wuyi mountains (IIA4) from 1951 to 2015. (2) From IIA2 to IIA4, the impact of human activities on flash floods was gradually weakened, while the contribution of precipitation indicators gradually strengthened. (3) The sensitivity analysis results revealed that the hazard factors of flash floods in different periods and regions had significant differences in Fujian Province. Based on the above results, it is necessary to accurately forecast extreme precipitation and improve the economic development model of the IIA2 region. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Slope Hazard Monitoring Using High-Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing: Lessons Learned From a Case Study
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(2), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9020131 (registering DOI) - 23 Feb 2020
Abstract
In this study, a highway slope monitoring project for a section of US highway I-77 in Virginia was carried out with the InSAR technique. This paper attempts to provide insights into the complete and practical solution for the monitoring project, including two parts: [...] Read more.
In this study, a highway slope monitoring project for a section of US highway I-77 in Virginia was carried out with the InSAR technique. This paper attempts to provide insights into the complete and practical solution for the monitoring project, including two parts: what to consider for selecting the optimal satellites and configurations for the given area of interest (AoI) and budget; and how to best process the selected data for the monitoring purposes. To answer the first question, the simulated geometric distortion map, cumulative change detection map, intensity map, interferograms and coherence maps from all available historical datasets were generated. The satellite configuration that gives the best coherence and least geometric distortion with the given budget was selected for the monitoring project. For this project, it was the X-band COSMO stripmap with 3 m resolution and eight-days revisit time. To answer the second question, a multi-temporal InSAR (MTInSAR) was applied to retrieve the settlement time series of the slopes along the highway. Several special techniques were applied to increase the level of confidence, i.e., dividing AoI into smaller and independent areas, using a non-linear approach, etc. Finally, fieldwork was carried out for the interpretation and validation of the results. The AoI was overall stable, though some local changes were detected by the SAR signal which were validated by the fieldwork. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geospatial Approaches to Landslide Mapping and Monitoring)
Open AccessArticle
Promoting Environmental Justice through Integrated Mapping Approaches: The Map of Water Conflicts in Andalusia (Spain)
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(2), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9020130 (registering DOI) - 22 Feb 2020
Viewed by 133
Abstract
Addressing environmental governance conflicts requires the adoption of a complexity approach to carry out an adaptive process of collective learning, exploration, and experimentation. In this article, we hypothesize that by integrating community-based participatory mapping processes with internet-based collaborative digital mapping technologies, it is [...] Read more.
Addressing environmental governance conflicts requires the adoption of a complexity approach to carry out an adaptive process of collective learning, exploration, and experimentation. In this article, we hypothesize that by integrating community-based participatory mapping processes with internet-based collaborative digital mapping technologies, it is possible to create tools and spaces for knowledge co-production and collective learning. We also argue that providing a collaborative web platform enables these projects to become a repository of activist knowledge and practices that are often poorly stored and barely shared across communities and organizations. The collaborative Webmap of Water Conflicts in Andalusia, Spain, is used to show the benefits and potential of mapping processes of this type. The article sets out the steps and methods used to develop this experience: i) background check; ii) team discussion and draft proposal; iii) in-depth interviews, and iv) integrated participative and collaborative mapping approach. The main challenge that had to be addressed during this process was to co-create a tool able to combine the two perspectives that construct the identity of integrated mapping: a data-information-knowledge co-production process that is useful for the social agents—the environmental activists—while also sufficiently categorizable and precise to enable the competent administrations to steer their water management. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Behavioural Effects of Spatially Structured Scoring Systems in Location-Based Serious Games—A Case Study in the Context of OpenStreetMap
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(2), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9020129 (registering DOI) - 22 Feb 2020
Viewed by 132
Abstract
Location-based games have become popular in recent years, with Pokémon Go and Ingress being two very prominent examples. Some location-based games, known as Serious Games, go beyond entertainment and serve additional purposes such as data collection. Such games are also found in the [...] Read more.
Location-based games have become popular in recent years, with Pokémon Go and Ingress being two very prominent examples. Some location-based games, known as Serious Games, go beyond entertainment and serve additional purposes such as data collection. Such games are also found in the OpenStreetMap context and playfully enrich the project’s geodatabase. Examples include Kort and StreetComplete. This article examines the role of spatially structured scoring systems as a motivational element. It is analysed how spatial structure in scoring systems is correlated with changes observed in the game behaviour. For this purpose, our study included two groups of subjects who played a modified game based on StreetComplete in a real urban environment. One group played the game with a spatially structured scoring system and the other with a spatially random scoring system. We evaluated different indicators and analysed the players’ GPS trajectories. In addition, the players filled out questionnaires to investigate whether they had become aware of the scoring system they were playing. The results obtained show that players who are confronted with a spatially structured scoring system are more likely to be in areas with high scores, have a longer playing time, walk longer distances and are more willing to take detours. Furthermore, discrepancies between the perception of a possible system in the scoring system and corresponding actions were revealed. The results are informative for game design, but also for a better understanding of how players interact with their geographical context during location-based games. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gaming and Geospatial Information)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
An OD Flow Clustering Method Based on Vector Constraints: A Case Study for Beijing Taxi Origin-Destination Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(2), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9020128 (registering DOI) - 22 Feb 2020
Viewed by 121
Abstract
Origin-destination (OD) flow pattern mining is an important research method of urban dynamics, in which OD flow clustering analysis discovers the activity patterns of urban residents and mine the coupling relationship of urban subspace and dynamic causes. The existing flow clustering methods are [...] Read more.
Origin-destination (OD) flow pattern mining is an important research method of urban dynamics, in which OD flow clustering analysis discovers the activity patterns of urban residents and mine the coupling relationship of urban subspace and dynamic causes. The existing flow clustering methods are limited by the spatial constraints of OD points, rely on the spatial similarity of geographical points, and lack in-depth analysis of high-dimensional flow characteristics, and therefore it is difficult to find irregular flow clusters. In this paper, we propose an OD flow clustering method based on vector constraints (ODFCVC), which defines OD flow event point and OD flow vector to express the spatial location relationship and geometric flow behavior characteristics of OD flow. First, the OD flow vector coordinate system is normalized by the Euclidean distance-based OD flow event point spatial clustering, and then the OD flow clusters with similar flow patterns are mined using adjusted cosine similarity-based OD flow vector feature clustering. The transformation of OD data from point set space to vector space is realized by constraining the vector coordinate system and vector similarity through two-step clustering, which simplifies the calculation of high-dimensional similarity of OD flow and helps mining representative OD flow clusters in flow space. Due to the OD flow cluster property, the k-means algorithm is selected as the basic clustering logic in the two-step clustering method, and a sum of squared error perceptually important points algorithm considering silhouette coefficients (SSEPIP) is adopted to automatically extract the optimal cluster number without defining any parameters. Tested by origin-destination flow data in Beijing, China, new traffic flow communities based on traffic hubs are obtained by using the ODFCVC method, and irregular traffic flow clusters (including cluster mode, divergence mode, and convergence mode) with representative travel trends are found. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Graph-Based Spatiotemporal Data Framework for 4D Natural Phenomena Representation and Quantification–An Example of Dust Events
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(2), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9020127 (registering DOI) - 22 Feb 2020
Viewed by 102
Abstract
Natural phenomena are intrinsically spatiotemporal and often highly dynamic. The increasing availability of simulation and observation datasets has provided us a great opportunity to better capture and understand the complexity and dynamics of natural phenomena. Challenges are posed by the formalization of the [...] Read more.
Natural phenomena are intrinsically spatiotemporal and often highly dynamic. The increasing availability of simulation and observation datasets has provided us a great opportunity to better capture and understand the complexity and dynamics of natural phenomena. Challenges are posed by the formalization of the representation of such phenomena in terms of their non-rigid boundaries and the quantification of event dynamics over space and time. The objectives of this research are to (1) conceptually represent the natural phenomenon as an event, and (2) quantify the dynamic movements and evolutions of events using a graph-based approach. This proposed data framework is applied to a dust simulation dataset to represent the 4D dynamic dust events. Dust events are identified, and movements are tracked to reconstruct dust events in the Northern Africa region from December 2013 to November 2014. Quantified dynamics of different dust events are demonstrated and verified to be in alignment with observations. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Using Areal Interpolation to Deal with Differing Regional Structures in International Research
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(2), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9020126 (registering DOI) - 22 Feb 2020
Viewed by 99
Abstract
When working with regional data from different countries, issues concerning data comparability need to be solved, including regional comparability. Differing regional unit size is a common issue which influences the results of socio-economic analyses. In this paper, we introduce a strategy to deal [...] Read more.
When working with regional data from different countries, issues concerning data comparability need to be solved, including regional comparability. Differing regional unit size is a common issue which influences the results of socio-economic analyses. In this paper, we introduce a strategy to deal with the regional incomparability of administrative data in international research. We propose a methodological approach based on the areal interpolation method, which facilitates the usage of advanced spatial analyses. To illustrate, we analyze spatial patterns of unemployment in seven Central European countries. We use a very detailed spatial (municipal) level to reveal local tendencies. To have comparable units across the whole region, we apply the areal interpolation method, a process of projecting data from source administrative units to the target structure of a grid. After choosing the most suitable grid structure and projecting the data onto the grid, we perform a hot spot analysis to show the benefits of the grid structure for socio-economic analyses. The proposed approach has great potential in international research for its methodological correctness and the ability to interpret results. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Analyzing Social-Geographic Human Mobility Patterns Using Large-Scale Social Media Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(2), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9020125 (registering DOI) - 21 Feb 2020
Viewed by 162
Abstract
Social media data analytics is the art of extracting valuable hidden insights from vast
amounts of semi‐structured and unstructured social media data to enable informed and insightful
decision‐making. Analysis of social media data has been applied for discovering patterns that may
support urban [...] Read more.
Social media data analytics is the art of extracting valuable hidden insights from vast
amounts of semi‐structured and unstructured social media data to enable informed and insightful
decision‐making. Analysis of social media data has been applied for discovering patterns that may
support urban planning decisions in smart cities. In this paper, Weibo social media data are used to
analyze social‐geographic human mobility in the CBD area of Shanghai to track citizen’s behavior.
Our main motivation is to test the validity of geo‐located Weibo data as a source for discovering
human mobility and activity patterns. In addition, our goal is to identify important locations in
people’s lives with the support of location‐based services. The algorithms used are described and
the results produced are presented using adequate visualization techniques to illustrate the detected
human mobility patterns obtained by the large‐scale social media data in order to support smart
city planning decisions. The outcome of this research is helpful not only for city planners, but also
for business developers who hope to extend their services to citizens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Trends in Location Based Services and Science)
Open AccessArticle
A New Approach to Refining Land Use Types: Predicting Point-of-Interest Categories Using Weibo Check-in Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(2), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9020124 (registering DOI) - 21 Feb 2020
Viewed by 141
Abstract
The information of land use plays an important role in urban planning and optimizing the allocation of resources. However, traditional land use classification is imprecise. For instance, the type of commercial land is highly filled with the categories of shopping, eating, etc. The [...] Read more.
The information of land use plays an important role in urban planning and optimizing the allocation of resources. However, traditional land use classification is imprecise. For instance, the type of commercial land is highly filled with the categories of shopping, eating, etc. The number of mixed-use lands is increasingly growing nowadays, and these lands sometimes are too mixed to be well investigated by conventional approaches such as remote sensing technology. To address this issue, we used a new social sensing approach to classify land use according to human mobility and activity patterns. Previous studies used other social sensing approaches to predict land use types at the parcel or the area level, whilst fine-grained point-of-interest (POI)-level land use data are likely to more useful in urban planning. To abridge this research gap, we proposed a new social sensing approach dedicated to classifying land use at a finer scale (i.e., POI-level or building level) according to human mobility and activity patterns reflected by location-based social network (LBSN) data. Specifically, we firstly investigated spatial and temporal patterns of human mobility and activity behavior using check-in data from a popular Chinese LBSN named Sina Weibo and subsequently applied those patterns to predicting the category of POI to refine urban land use classification in Guangzhou, China. In this study, we applied three classification methods (i.e., naive Bayes, support vector machines, and random forest) to recognize category of a certain POI by spatial and temporal features of human mobility and activity behavior as well as POIs’ locational characteristics. Random forest outperformed the other two methods and obtained an overall accuracy of 72.21%. Apart from that, we compared the results of the different rules in filtering check-in samples. The comparison results show that a reasonable rule to select samples is essential for predicting the category of POI. Moreover, the approach proposed in this study can be potentially applied to identifying functions of buildings according to visitors’ mobility and activity behavior and buildings’ locational characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Convergence of GIS and Social Media)
Open AccessArticle
Automatic Threat Detection for Historic Buildings in Dark Places Based on the Modified OptD Method
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(2), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9020123 (registering DOI) - 21 Feb 2020
Viewed by 88
Abstract
Historic buildings, due to their architectural, cultural, and historical value, are the subject of preservation and conservatory works. Such operations are preceded by an inventory of the object. One of the tools that can be applied for such purposes is Light Detection and [...] Read more.
Historic buildings, due to their architectural, cultural, and historical value, are the subject of preservation and conservatory works. Such operations are preceded by an inventory of the object. One of the tools that can be applied for such purposes is Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR). This technology provides information about the position, reflection, and intensity values of individual points; thus, it allows for the creation of a realistic visualization of the entire scanned object. Due to the fact that LiDAR allows one to 'see' and extract information about the structure of an object without the need for external lighting or daylight, it can be a reliable and very convenient tool for data analysis for improving safety and avoiding disasters. The main goal of this paper is to present an approach of automatic wall defect detection in unlit sites by means of a modified Optimum Dataset (OptD) method. In this study, the results of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) measurements conducted in two historic buildings in rooms without daylight are presented. One location was in the basement of the ruins of a medieval tower located in Dobre Miasto, Poland, and the second was in the basement of a century-old building located at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland. The measurements were performed by means of a Leica C-10 scanner. The acquired dataset of x, y, z, and intensity was processed by the OptD method. The OptD operates in such a way that within the area of interest where surfaces are imperfect (e.g., due to cracks and cavities), more points are preserved, while at homogeneous surfaces (areas of low interest), more points are removed (redundant information). The OptD algorithm was additionally modified by introducing options to detect and segment defects on a scale from 0 to 3 (0—harmless, 1—to the inventory, 2—requiring repair, 3—dangerous). The survey results obtained proved the high effectiveness of the modified OptD method in the detection and segmentation of the wall defects. The values of area of changes were calculated. The obtained information about the size of the change can be used to estimate the costs of repair, renovation, and reconstruction. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Indoor Localization of a Mobile Platform Based on Monocular Vision and Coding Images
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(2), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9020122 (registering DOI) - 21 Feb 2020
Viewed by 95
Abstract
With the extensive development and utilization of urban underground space, coal mines, and other indoor areas, the indoor positioning technology of these areas has become a hot research topic. This paper proposes a robust localization method for indoor mobile platforms. Firstly, a series [...] Read more.
With the extensive development and utilization of urban underground space, coal mines, and other indoor areas, the indoor positioning technology of these areas has become a hot research topic. This paper proposes a robust localization method for indoor mobile platforms. Firstly, a series of coding graphics were designed for localizing the platform, and the spatial coordinates of these coding graphics were calculated by using a new method proposed in this paper. Secondly, two spatial resection models were constructed based on unit weight and Tukey weight to localize the platform in indoor environments. Lastly, the experimental results show that both models can calculate the position of the platform with good accuracy. The space resection model based on Tukey weight correctly identified the residuals of the observations for calculating the weights to obtain robust positioning results and has a high positioning accuracy. The navigation and positioning method proposed in this study has a high localization accuracy and can be potentially used in localizing practical indoor space mobile platforms. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Harmonized Data Model for Noise Simulation in the EU
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(2), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9020121 (registering DOI) - 21 Feb 2020
Viewed by 104
Abstract
This paper presents our implementation of a harmonized data model for noise simulations in the European Union (EU). Different noise assessment methods are used by different EU member states (MS) for estimating noise at local, regional, and national scales. These methods, along with [...] Read more.
This paper presents our implementation of a harmonized data model for noise simulations in the European Union (EU). Different noise assessment methods are used by different EU member states (MS) for estimating noise at local, regional, and national scales. These methods, along with the input data extracted from the national registers and databases, as well as other open and/or commercially available data, differ in several aspects and it is difficult to obtain comparable results across the EU. To address this issue, a common framework for noise assessment methods (CNOSSOS-EU) was developed by the European Commission’s (EC) Joint Research Centre (JRC). However, apart from the software implementations for CNOSSOS, very little has been done for the practical guidelines outlining the specifications for the required input data, metadata, and the schema design to test the real-world situations with CNOSSOS. We describe our approach for modeling input and output data for noise simulations and also generate a real world dataset of an area in the Netherlands based on our data model for simulating urban noise using CNOSSOS. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Fusion of Sentinel-1 with Official Topographic and Cadastral Geodata for Crop-Type Enriched LULC Mapping Using FOSS and Open Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(2), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9020120 (registering DOI) - 21 Feb 2020
Viewed by 102
Abstract
Accurate crop-type maps are urgently needed as input data for various applications, leading to improved planning and more sustainable use of resources. Satellite remote sensing is the optimal tool to provide such data. Images from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite sensors are preferably [...] Read more.
Accurate crop-type maps are urgently needed as input data for various applications, leading to improved planning and more sustainable use of resources. Satellite remote sensing is the optimal tool to provide such data. Images from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite sensors are preferably used as they work regardless of cloud coverage during image acquisition. However, processing of SAR is more complicated and the sensors have development potential. Dealing with such a complexity, current studies should aim to be reproducible, open, and built upon free and open-source software (FOSS). Thereby, the data can be reused to develop and validate new algorithms or improve the ones already in use. This paper presents a case study of crop classification from microwave remote sensing, relying on open data and open software only. We used 70 multitemporal microwave remote sensing images from the Sentinel-1 satellite. A high-resolution, high-precision digital elevation model (DEM) assisted the preprocessing. The multi-data approach (MDA) was used as a framework enabling to demonstrate the benefits of including external cadastral data. It was used to identify the agricultural area prior to the classification and to create land use/land cover (LULC) maps which also include the annually changing crop types that are usually missing in official geodata. All the software used in this study is open-source, such as the Sentinel Application Toolbox (SNAP), Orfeo Toolbox, R, and QGIS. The produced geodata, all input data, and several intermediate data are openly shared in a research database. Validation using an independent validation dataset showed a high overall accuracy of 96.7% with differentiation into 11 different crop-classes. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Geoweaver: Advanced Cyberinfrastructure for Managing Hybrid Geoscientific AI Workflows
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(2), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9020119 - 21 Feb 2020
Viewed by 111
Abstract
AI (artificial intelligence)-based analysis of geospatial data has gained a lot of attention. Geospatial datasets are multi-dimensional; have spatiotemporal context; exist in disparate formats; and require sophisticated AI workflows that include not only the AI algorithm training and testing, but also data preprocessing [...] Read more.
AI (artificial intelligence)-based analysis of geospatial data has gained a lot of attention. Geospatial datasets are multi-dimensional; have spatiotemporal context; exist in disparate formats; and require sophisticated AI workflows that include not only the AI algorithm training and testing, but also data preprocessing and result post-processing. This complexity poses a huge challenge when it comes to full-stack AI workflow management, as researchers often use an assortment of time-intensive manual operations to manage their projects. However, none of the existing workflow management software provides a satisfying solution on hybrid resources, full file access, data flow, code control, and provenance. This paper introduces a new system named Geoweaver to improve the efficiency of full-stack AI workflow management. It supports linking all the preprocessing, AI training and testing, and post-processing steps into a single automated workflow. To demonstrate its utility, we present a use case in which Geoweaver manages end-to-end deep learning for in-time crop mapping using Landsat data. We show how Geoweaver effectively removes the tedium of managing various scripts, code, libraries, Jupyter Notebooks, datasets, servers, and platforms, greatly reducing the time, cost, and effort researchers must spend on such AI-based workflows. The concepts demonstrated through Geoweaver serve as an important building block in the future of cyberinfrastructure for AI research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS Software and Engineering for Big Data)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Developing a Serious Game That Supports the Resolution of Social and Ecological Problems in the Toolset Environment of Cities: Skylines
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(2), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9020118 - 20 Feb 2020
Viewed by 114
Abstract
Game engines are not only capable of creating virtual worlds or providing entertainment, but also of modelling actual geographical space and producing solutions that support the process of social participation. This article presents an authorial concept of using the environment of Cities: Skylines [...] Read more.
Game engines are not only capable of creating virtual worlds or providing entertainment, but also of modelling actual geographical space and producing solutions that support the process of social participation. This article presents an authorial concept of using the environment of Cities: Skylines and the C# programming language to automate the process of importing official topographic data into the game engine and developing a prototype of a serious game that supports solving social and ecological problems. The model—developed using digital topographic data, digital terrain models, and CityGML 3D models—enabled the creation of a prototype of a serious game, later endorsed by the residents of the municipality, local authorities, as well as the Ministry of Investment and Economic Development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gaming and Geospatial Information)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Complexity Level of People Gathering Presentation on an Animated Map—Objective Effectiveness Versus Expert Opinion
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(2), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9020117 - 20 Feb 2020
Viewed by 119
Abstract
The aim of the following study was to present three alternative methods of visualization on animated maps illustrating the movement of people gathered at an open-air event recorded on photographs taken by a drone. The effectiveness of an orthorectified low-level aerial image (a [...] Read more.
The aim of the following study was to present three alternative methods of visualization on animated maps illustrating the movement of people gathered at an open-air event recorded on photographs taken by a drone. The effectiveness of an orthorectified low-level aerial image (a so-called orthophoto), a dot distribution map, and a buffer map was tested in an experiment featuring experts, and key significance was attached to the juxtaposition of objective responses with subjective opinions. The results of the study enabled its authors to draw conclusions regarding the importance of visualizing topographic references (stable objects) and people (mobile objects) and the usefulness of the particular elements of animated maps for their analysis and interpretation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimedia Cartography)
Open AccessArticle
Predicting Future Locations of Moving Objects by Recurrent Mixture Density Network
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(2), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9020116 - 20 Feb 2020
Viewed by 112
Abstract
Accurate and timely location prediction of moving objects is crucial for intelligent transportation systems and traffic management. In recent years, ubiquitous location acquisition technologies have provided the opportunity for mining knowledge from trajectories, making location prediction and real-time decisions more feasible. Previous location [...] Read more.
Accurate and timely location prediction of moving objects is crucial for intelligent transportation systems and traffic management. In recent years, ubiquitous location acquisition technologies have provided the opportunity for mining knowledge from trajectories, making location prediction and real-time decisions more feasible. Previous location prediction methods have mostly developed on the basis of shallow models whereas shallow models are not competent for some tricky challenges such as multi-time-step location coordinates prediction. Motivated by the current study status, we are dedicated to a deep-learning-based approach to predict the coordinates of several future locations of moving objects based on recent trajectory records. The method of this work consists of three successive parts: trajectory preprocessing, prediction model construction, and post-processing. In this work, a prediction model named the bidirectional recurrent mixture density network (BiRMDN) was constructed by integrating the long short-term memory (LSTM) and mixture density network (MDN) together. This model has the ability to learn long-term contextual information from recent trajectory and model real-valued location coordinates. We employed a vessel trajectory dataset for the implementation of this approach and determined the optimal model configuration after several parameter analysis experiments. Experimental results involving a performance comparison with other widely used methods demonstrate the superiority of the BiRMDN model. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Assessing Similarities and Differences between Males and Females in Visual Behaviors in Spatial Orientation Tasks
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(2), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9020115 - 20 Feb 2020
Viewed by 133
Abstract
Spatial orientation is an important task in human wayfinding. Existing research indicates sex-related similarities and differences in performance and strategies when executing spatial orientation behaviors, but few studies have investigated the similarities and differences in visual behaviors between males and females. To address [...] Read more.
Spatial orientation is an important task in human wayfinding. Existing research indicates sex-related similarities and differences in performance and strategies when executing spatial orientation behaviors, but few studies have investigated the similarities and differences in visual behaviors between males and females. To address this research gap, we explored visual behavior similarities and differences between males and females using an eye-tracking method. We recruited 40 participants to perform spatial orientation tasks in a desktop environment and recorded their eye-tracking data during these tasks. The results indicate that there are no significant differences between sexes in efficiency and accuracy of spatial orientation. In terms of visual behaviors, we found that males fixated significantly longer than females on roads. Males and females had similar fixation counts in building, signpost, map, and other objects. Males and females performed similarly in fixation duration for all five classes. Moreover, fixation duration was well fitted to an exponential function for both males and females. The base of the exponential function fitted by males’ fixation duration was significantly lower than that of females, and the coefficient difference of exponential function was not found. Females were more effective in switching from maps to signposts, but differences of switches from map to other classes were not found. The newfound similarities and differences between males and females in visual behavior may aid in the design of better human-centered outdoor navigation applications. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Use of Mamdani Fuzzy Algorithm for Multi-Hazard Susceptibility Assessment in a Developing Urban Settlement (Mamak, Ankara, Turkey)
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(2), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9020114 - 19 Feb 2020
Viewed by 329
Abstract
Urban areas may be affected by multiple hazards, and integrated hazard susceptibility maps are needed for suitable site selection and planning. Furthermore, geological–geotechnical parameters, construction costs, and the spatial distribution of existing infrastructure should be taken into account for this purpose. Up-to-date land-use [...] Read more.
Urban areas may be affected by multiple hazards, and integrated hazard susceptibility maps are needed for suitable site selection and planning. Furthermore, geological–geotechnical parameters, construction costs, and the spatial distribution of existing infrastructure should be taken into account for this purpose. Up-to-date land-use and land-cover (LULC) maps, as well as natural hazard susceptibility maps, can be frequently obtained from high-resolution satellite sensors. In this study, an integrated hazard susceptibility assessment was performed for a developing urban settlement (Mamak District of Ankara City, Turkey) considering landslide and flood potential. The flood susceptibility map of Ankara City was produced in a previous study using modified analytical hierarchical process (M-AHP) approach. The landslide susceptibility map was produced using the logistic regression technique in this study. Sentinel-2 images were employed for generating LULC data with the random forest classification method. Topographical derivatives obtained from a high-resolution digital elevation model and lithological parameters were employed for the production of landslide susceptibility maps. For the integrated hazard susceptibility assessment, the Mamdani fuzzy algorithm was considered, and the results are discussed in the present study. The results demonstrate that multi-hazard susceptibility assessment maps for urban planning can be obtained by combining a set of expert-based and ensemble learning methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GI for Disaster Management)
Open AccessArticle
A Spatiotemporal Dilated Convolutional Generative Network for Point-Of-Interest Recommendation
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(2), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9020113 - 19 Feb 2020
Viewed by 145
Abstract
With the growing popularity of location-based social media applications, point-of-interest (POI) recommendation has become important in recent years. Several techniques, especially the collaborative filtering (CF), Markov chain (MC), and recurrent neural network (RNN) based methods, have been recently proposed for the POI recommendation [...] Read more.
With the growing popularity of location-based social media applications, point-of-interest (POI) recommendation has become important in recent years. Several techniques, especially the collaborative filtering (CF), Markov chain (MC), and recurrent neural network (RNN) based methods, have been recently proposed for the POI recommendation service. However, CF-based methods and MC-based methods are ineffective to represent complicated interaction relations in the historical check-in sequences. Although recurrent neural networks (RNNs) and its variants have been successfully employed in POI recommendation, they depend on a hidden state of the entire past that cannot fully utilize parallel computation within a check-in sequence. To address these above limitations, we propose a spatiotemporal dilated convolutional generative network (ST-DCGN) for POI recommendation in this study. Firstly, inspired by the Google DeepMind’ WaveNet model, we introduce a simple but very effective dilated convolutional generative network as a solution to POI recommendation, which can efficiently model the user’s complicated short- and long-range check-in sequence by using a stack of dilated causal convolution layers and residual block structure. Then, we propose to acquire user’s spatial preference by modeling continuous geographical distances, and to capture user’s temporal preference by considering two types of time periodic patterns (i.e., hours in a day and days in a week). Moreover, we conducted an extensive performance evaluation using two large-scale real-world datasets, namely Foursquare and Instagram. Experimental results show that the proposed ST-DCGN model is well-suited for POI recommendation problems and can effectively learn dependencies in and between the check-in sequences. The proposed model attains state-of-the-art accuracy with less training time in the POI recommendation task. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Smart Tour Route Planning Algorithm Based on Naïve Bayes Interest Data Mining Machine Learning
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(2), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9020112 - 19 Feb 2020
Viewed by 112
Abstract
A smart tour route planning algorithm based on a Naïve Bayes interest data mining machine learning is brought forward in the paper, according to the problems of current tour route planning methods. A machine learning model of Naïve Bayes interest data mining is [...] Read more.
A smart tour route planning algorithm based on a Naïve Bayes interest data mining machine learning is brought forward in the paper, according to the problems of current tour route planning methods. A machine learning model of Naïve Bayes interest data mining is set up by learning a mass of training data on tourists’ interests and needs. Through the recommended interest tourist site classifications from the machine learning module, the optimal tourist site mining algorithm based on the membership degree searching propagating tree of a tourist’s temporary accommodation is set up, which mines and outputs the optimal tourist sites. The mined optimal tourist sites are taken as seed points to set up a tour route planning algorithm based on the optimal propagating tree of a closed-loop structure. Through the proposed algorithm, an experiment is designed and performed to output optimal tour routes conforming to tourists’ needs and interests, including the propagating tree closed-loop structures, a minimum heap of propagating tree weight function value, and a weight function value complete binary tree. We prove that the proposed algorithm has the features of intelligence and accuracy, and it can learn tourists’ needs and interests to output optimal tourist sites and tour routes and ensure that tourists can get the best motive benefits and travel experience in the tour process, by analyzing the experiment data and results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Tourism: A GIS-Based Approach)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Vegetation Phenological Changes in Multiple Landforms and Responses to Climate Change
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(2), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9020111 - 19 Feb 2020
Viewed by 143
Abstract
Vegetation phenology is highly sensitive to climate change, and the phenological responses of vegetation to climate factors vary over time and space. Research on the vegetation phenology in different climatic regimes will help clarify the key factors affecting vegetation changes. In this paper, [...] Read more.
Vegetation phenology is highly sensitive to climate change, and the phenological responses of vegetation to climate factors vary over time and space. Research on the vegetation phenology in different climatic regimes will help clarify the key factors affecting vegetation changes. In this paper, based on a time-series reconstruction of Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data using the Savitzky–Golay filtering method, the phenology parameters of vegetation were extracted, and the Spatio-temporal changes from 2001 to 2016 were analyzed. Moreover, the response characteristics of the vegetation phenology to climate changes, such as changes in temperature, precipitation, and sunshine hours, were discussed. The results showed that the responses of vegetation phenology to climatic factors varied within different climatic regimes and that the Spatio-temporal responses were primarily controlled by the local climatic and topographic conditions. The following were the three key findings. (1) The start of the growing season (SOS) has a regular variation with the latitude, and that in the north is later than that in the south. (2) In arid areas in the north, the SOS is mainly affected by the temperature, and the end of the growing season (EOS) is affected by precipitation, while in humid areas in the south, the SOS is mainly affected by precipitation, and the EOS is affected by the temperature. (3) Human activities play an important role in vegetation phenology changes. These findings would help predict and evaluate the stability of different ecosystems. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Use of AHP to Prioritize Five Waste Processing Plants Locations in Krakow
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(2), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9020110 - 18 Feb 2020
Viewed by 189
Abstract
The purpose of the paper is to use the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to determine the prioritization of areas designated for infrastructure investments. The research was carried out using an example of a municipal solid waste incineration plant in Kraków. Based on research [...] Read more.
The purpose of the paper is to use the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to determine the prioritization of areas designated for infrastructure investments. The research was carried out using an example of a municipal solid waste incineration plant in Kraków. Based on research tests conducted on actual field data, this paper proves that spatial information systems can be a useful source of information in decision-making processes related to the assessment of the location of an investment project with a function so important for the natural environment and maintaining the principle of sustainable development. Owing to the development of technologies such as remote sensing and GIS, the obtained data are of high quality, and the possibility for processing and making them available in real time makes them up to date. The research methodology for selecting areas for a well-defined purpose includes five separate stages: Defining the parameters, acquiring data from spatial information systems, data standardization, criteria weighting by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), calculation of the coefficient of area suitability for the location of a particular facility, and its graphic representation on a map. The final result is the ranking of areas in terms of suitability for the implementation of an infrastructural project i.e., the construction of a municipal waste incineration plant. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Research on an Urban Building Area Extraction Method with High-Resolution PolSAR Imaging Based on Adaptive Neighborhood Selection Neighborhoods for Preserving Embedding
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(2), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9020109 - 14 Feb 2020
Viewed by 220
Abstract
Feature extraction of an urban area is one of the most important directions of polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) applications. A high-resolution PolSAR image has the characteristics of high dimensions and nonlinearity. Therefore, to find intrinsic features for target recognition, a building area [...] Read more.
Feature extraction of an urban area is one of the most important directions of polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) applications. A high-resolution PolSAR image has the characteristics of high dimensions and nonlinearity. Therefore, to find intrinsic features for target recognition, a building area extraction method for PolSAR images based on the Adaptive Neighborhoods selection Neighborhood Preserving Embedding (ANSNPE) algorithm is proposed. First, 52 features are extracted by using the Gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and five polarization decomposition methods. The feature set is divided into 20 dimensions, 36 dimensions, and 52 dimensions. Next, the ANSNPE algorithm is applied to the training samples, and the projection matrix is obtained for the test image to extract the new features. Lastly, the Support Vector machine (SVM) classifier and post processing are used to extract the building area, and the accuracy is evaluated. Comparative experiments are conducted using Radarsat-2, and the results show that the ANSNPE algorithm could effectively extract the building area and that it had a better generalization ability; the projection matrix is obtained using the training data and could be directly applied to the new sample, and the building area extraction accuracy is above 80%. The combination of polarization and texture features provide a wealth of information that is more conducive to the extraction of building areas. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Modeling the Optimal Baseline for a Spaceborne Bistatic SAR System to Generate DEMs
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(2), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9020108 - 14 Feb 2020
Viewed by 159
Abstract
Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is one of the best methods for obtaining digital elevation models (DEMs). However, the problem of the uncertainty of DEM accuracy affected by the perpendicular baseline still persists, which should be as long as possible to ensure the [...] Read more.
Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is one of the best methods for obtaining digital elevation models (DEMs). However, the problem of the uncertainty of DEM accuracy affected by the perpendicular baseline still persists, which should be as long as possible to ensure the sensitivity of the phase to the height measurement, and as small as possible to ensure a high spatial coherence. Moreover, the baseline configuration design of bistatic SAR system lacks a more detailed model for reference to generate high-precision DEM. Therefore, in this paper, the optimal baseline is modeled to maximize the accuracy of height measurement. First, we analyze the influence of system parameters on the height measurement accuracy, and a propagation model from the parameter estimation error to the elevation error is derived. Then, the phase unwrapping error (PUE) that considers the spatial baseline coherence, terrain slope and phase unwrapping effectiveness is modeled and analyzed after interferometric phase simulation and adaptive unscented Kalman filter phase unwrapping. Combining the relationship between the height error and the PUE, the optimal baseline model is obtained by statistical analysis. Finally, weighted averages are used to calculate the average slope of the complex terrain and the validity and reliability of the proposed optimal baseline model are verified by two examples of complex terrains with uniformly and nonuniformly distributed positive and negative slope angles. Moreover, the optimal baseline ranges of different terrain types are also derived for reference. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperReview
3D Land Administration: A Review and a Future Vision in the Context of the Spatial Development Lifecycle
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(2), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9020107 - 13 Feb 2020
Viewed by 234
Abstract
Land Administration practices worldwide rely mainly on 2D-based systems to define legal and other spatial boundaries related to land interests. However, the built environment is increasingly becoming spatially complex. Land administrators are challenged by an unprecedented demand to utilise space above and below [...] Read more.
Land Administration practices worldwide rely mainly on 2D-based systems to define legal and other spatial boundaries related to land interests. However, the built environment is increasingly becoming spatially complex. Land administrators are challenged by an unprecedented demand to utilise space above and below earth’s surface. The relationships between people and land in vertical space can no longer be unambiguously represented in 2D. In addition, the current societal demand for sustainability in a collaborative environment and a lifecycle-thinking, is driving the need to integrate independent systems with standalone databases and methodologies, associated with different aspects of the Spatial Development lifeCycle (SDC). Land Administration Systems (LASs) are an important component of the SDC. Today, a LAS is often mandated and managed as a domain in isolation. Interaction and data reuse with the other phases of the SDC is limited and far from optimal. It is expected that effective 3D data collaboration, sharing, and reuse across the sectors and disciplines in the lifecycle will enable new ways of data harmonisation and use in this complex environment; will improve efficiency of design and data acquisition, as well as data quality (in relation to specific regulations); and will minimise inconsistencies and data loss within information flows. Overall, a cross-sectoral approach is directed towards improving the current state of the Land Administration (LA) domain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art in Spatial Information Science)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Measuring Impacts of Urban Environmental Elements on Housing Prices Based on Multisource Data—A Case Study of Shanghai, China
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(2), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9020106 - 10 Feb 2020
Viewed by 206
Abstract
Diverse urban environmental elements provide health and amenity value for residents. People are willing to pay a premium for a better environment. Thus, it is essential to assess the benefits and values of these environmental elements. However, limited by the interpretability of the [...] Read more.
Diverse urban environmental elements provide health and amenity value for residents. People are willing to pay a premium for a better environment. Thus, it is essential to assess the benefits and values of these environmental elements. However, limited by the interpretability of the machine learning model, existing studies cannot fully excavate the complex nonlinear relationships between housing prices and environmental elements, as well as the spatial variations of impacts of urban environmental elements on housing prices. This study explored the impacts of urban environmental elements on residential housing prices based on multisource data in Shanghai. A SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP) method was introduced to explain the impacts of urban environmental elements on housing prices. By combining the ensemble learning model and SHAP, the contributions of environmental characteristics derived from street view data and remote sensing data were computed and mapped. The experimental results show that all the urban environmental characteristics account for 16 percent of housing prices in Shanghai. The relationships between housing prices and two green characteristics (green view index from street view data and urban green coverage rate from remote sensing) are both nonlinear. Shanghai’s homebuyers are willing to pay a premium for green only when the green view index or urban green coverage rate are of higher value. However, there are significant differences between the impacts of the green view index and urban green coverage rate on housing prices. The sky view index has a negative influence on housing prices, which is probably because the high-density and high-rise residential area often has better living facilities. Residents in Shanghai are willing to pay a premium for high urban water coverage. The case of Shanghai shows that the proposed framework is practical and efficient. This framework is believed to provide a tool to inform the decisions of housing buyers, property developers and policies concerning land-selling and buying, property development and urban environment improvement. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Remote Sensing Data Assimilation in Dynamic Crop Models Using Particle Swarm Optimization
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(2), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9020105 - 10 Feb 2020
Viewed by 192
Abstract
A growing world population, increasing prosperity in emerging countries, and shifts in energy and food demands necessitate a continuous increase in global agricultural production. Simultaneously, risks of extreme weather events and a slowing productivity growth in recent years has caused concerns about meeting [...] Read more.
A growing world population, increasing prosperity in emerging countries, and shifts in energy and food demands necessitate a continuous increase in global agricultural production. Simultaneously, risks of extreme weather events and a slowing productivity growth in recent years has caused concerns about meeting the demands in the future. Crop monitoring and timely yield predictions are an important tool to mitigate risk and ensure food security. A common approach is to combine the temporal simulation of dynamic crop models with a geospatial component by assimilating remote sensing data. To ensure reliable assimilation, handling of uncertainties in both models and the assimilated input data is crucial. Here, we present a new approach for data assimilation using particle swarm optimization (PSO) in combination with statistical distance metrics that allow for flexible handling of model and input uncertainties. We explored the potential of the newly proposed method in a case study by assimilating canopy cover (CC) information, obtained from Sentinel-2 data, into the AquaCrop-OS model to improve winter wheat yield estimation on the pixel- and field-level and compared the performance with two other methods (simple updating and extended Kalman filter). Our results indicate that the performance of the new method is superior to simple updating and similar or better than the extended Kalman filter updating. Furthermore, it was particularly successful in reducing bias in yield estimation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Uncertainty Modeling in Spatial Data Analysis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Prototyping a Social Media Flooding Photo Screening System Based on Deep Learning
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(2), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9020104 - 09 Feb 2020
Viewed by 240
Abstract
This article aims to implement a prototype screening system to identify flooding-related photos from social media. These photos, associated with their geographic locations, can provide free, timely, and reliable visual information about flood events to the decision-makers. This screening system, designed for application [...] Read more.
This article aims to implement a prototype screening system to identify flooding-related photos from social media. These photos, associated with their geographic locations, can provide free, timely, and reliable visual information about flood events to the decision-makers. This screening system, designed for application to social media images, includes several key modules: tweet/image downloading, flooding photo detection, and a WebGIS application for human verification. In this study, a training dataset of 4800 flooding photos was built based on an iterative method using a convolutional neural network (CNN) developed and trained to detect flooding photos. The system was designed in a way that the CNN can be re-trained by a larger training dataset when more analyst-verified flooding photos are being added to the training set in an iterative manner. The total accuracy of flooding photo detection was 93% in a balanced test set, and the precision ranges from 46–63% in the highly imbalanced real-time tweets. The system is plug-in enabled, permitting flexible changes to the classification module. Therefore, the system architecture and key components may be utilized in other types of disaster events, such as wildfires, earthquakes for the damage/impact assessment. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Head/Tail Breaks-Based Method for Efficiently Estimating the Absolute Boltzmann Entropy of Numerical Raster Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(2), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9020103 - 07 Feb 2020
Viewed by 201
Abstract
Shannon entropy is the most popular method for quantifying information in a system. However, Shannon entropy is considered incapable of quantifying spatial data, such as raster data, hence it has not been applied to such datasets. Recently, a method for calculating the Boltzmann [...] Read more.
Shannon entropy is the most popular method for quantifying information in a system. However, Shannon entropy is considered incapable of quantifying spatial data, such as raster data, hence it has not been applied to such datasets. Recently, a method for calculating the Boltzmann entropy of numerical raster data was proposed, but it is not efficient as it involves a series of numerical processes. We aimed to improve the computational efficiency of this method by borrowing the idea of head and tail breaks. This paper relaxed the condition of head and tail breaks and classified data with a heavy-tailed distribution. The average of the data values in a given class was regarded as its representative value, and this was substituted into a linear function to obtain the full expression of the relationship between classification level and Boltzmann entropy. The function was used to estimate the absolute Boltzmann entropy of the data. Our experimental results show that the proposed method is both practical and efficient; computation time was reduced to about 1% of the original method when dealing with eight 600×600 pixel digital elevation models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geographic Complexity: Concepts, Theories, and Practices)
Previous Issue
Back to TopTop