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Automatic Discovery of Railway Train Driving Modes Using Unsupervised Deep Learning

School of Traffic and Transportation, Beijing Jiaotong University, No.3 Shang Yuan Cun, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100044, China
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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(7), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8070294
Received: 16 May 2019 / Revised: 23 June 2019 / Accepted: 24 June 2019 / Published: 27 June 2019
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Abstract

Driving modes play vital roles in understanding the stochastic nature of a railway system and can support studies of automatic driving and capacity utilization optimization. Integrated trajectory data containing information such as GPS trajectories and gear changes can be good proxies in the study of driving modes. However, in the absence of labeled data, discovering driving modes is challenging. In this paper, instead of classical models (railway-specified feature extraction and classical clustering), we used five deep unsupervised learning models to overcome this difficulty. In these models, adversarial autoencoders and stacked autoencoders are used as feature extractors, along with generative adversarial network-based and Kullback–Leibler (KL) divergence-based networks as clustering models. An experiment based on real and artificial datasets showed the following: (i) The proposed deep learning models outperform the classical models by 27.64% on average. (ii) Integrated trajectory data can improve the accuracy of unsupervised learning by approximately 13.78%. (iii) The different performance rankings of models based on indices with labeled data and indices without labeled data demonstrate the insufficiency of people’s understanding of the existing modes. This study also analyzes the relationship between the discovered modes and railway carrying capacity. View Full-Text
Keywords: modes of driving railway trains; unsupervised learning; deep learning; generative adversarial networks; stacked autoencoders modes of driving railway trains; unsupervised learning; deep learning; generative adversarial networks; stacked autoencoders
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Zheng, H.; Cui, Z.; Zhang, X. Automatic Discovery of Railway Train Driving Modes Using Unsupervised Deep Learning. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8, 294.

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