Spatio-temporal indexing is a key technique in spatio-temporal data storage and management. Indexing methods based on spatial filling curves are popular in research on the spatio-temporal indexing of vector data in the Not Relational (NoSQL) database. However, the existing methods mostly focus on spatial indexing, which makes it difficult to balance the efficiencies of time and space queries. In addition, for non-point elements (line and polygon elements), it remains difficult to determine the optimal index level. To address these issues, this paper proposes an adaptive construction method of hierarchical spatio-temporal index for vector data. Firstly, a joint spatio-temporal information coding based on the combination of the partition and sort key strategies is presented. Secondly, the multilevel expression structure of spatio-temporal elements consisting of point and non-point elements in the joint coding is given. Finally, an adaptive multi-level index tree is proposed to realize the spatio-temporal index (Multi-level Sphere 3, MLS3) based on the spatio-temporal characteristics of geographical entities. Comparison with the XZ3 index algorithm proposed by GeoMesa proved that the MLS3 indexing method not only reasonably expresses the spatio-temporal features of non-point elements and determines their optimal index level, but also avoids storage hotspots while achieving spatio-temporal retrieval with high efficiency.
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