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Social Force Model-Based Group Behavior Simulation in Virtual Geographic Environments

State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012, China
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Zhejiang-CAS Application Center for Geoinformatics, Jiaxing 314199, China
Information Science Academy, China Electronics Technology Group Corporation, Beijing 100081, China
School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA
Beijing Deepwise Science&Technology Co., Ltd., Beijing 100080, China
School of Geology and Geomatics, Tianjin Chengjian University, Tianjin 300384, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(2), 79;
Received: 16 December 2017 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 18 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
PDF [15083 KB, uploaded 24 February 2018]


Virtual geographic environments (VGEs) are extensively used to explore the relationship between humans and environments. Crowd simulation provides a method for VGEs to represent crowd behaviors that are observed in the real world. The social force model (SFM) can simulate interactions among individuals, but it has not sufficiently accounted for inter-group and intra-group behaviors which are important components of crowd dynamics. We present the social group force model (SGFM), based on an extended SFM, to simulate group behaviors in VGEs with focuses on the avoiding behaviors among different social groups and the coordinate behaviors among subgroups that belong to one social group. In our model, psychological repulsions between social groups make them avoid with the whole group and group members can stick together as much as possible; while social groups are separated into several subgroups, the rear subgroups try to catch up and keep the whole group cohesive. We compare the simulation results of the SGFM with the extended SFM and the phenomena in videos. Then we discuss the function of Virtual Reality (VR) in crowd simulation visualization. The results indicate that the SGFM can enhance social group behaviors in crowd dynamics. View Full-Text
Keywords: virtual geographic environments; social force model; avoiding behaviors; coordinate behaviors; crowd dynamics virtual geographic environments; social force model; avoiding behaviors; coordinate behaviors; crowd dynamics

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Huang, L.; Gong, J.; Li, W.; Xu, T.; Shen, S.; Liang, J.; Feng, Q.; Zhang, D.; Sun, J. Social Force Model-Based Group Behavior Simulation in Virtual Geographic Environments. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7, 79.

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